Designing Technology for Social Impact

Online syllabus:

Instructors: Prof. Phoebe Sengers; teaching team led by Vera Khovanskaya, Leo Kang, and Palashi Vaghela
Time: Tu, Th 1:25-2:40
Location: Ives Hall 305

The social impact of technologies is typically thought about fairly late, if ever, in the design process. Indeed, it can be difficult at design time to predict what effects technologies will have. Nevertheless, design decisions can inadvertently "lock in" particular values early on. In this course, we will draw on science & technology studies, technology design, and the arts to analyze the values embodied in technology design and to design technologies to promote positive social impact. What social and cultural values do technology designs consciously or unconsciously promote? To what degree can social impact be "built into" a technology? How can we take social and cultural values into account in design?

Technical background is not needed for this course, but may be drawn on if you have it.

Course Philosophy

In the modern world, technologies are an intimate part of everyone's daily lives. The act of designing technologies does not simply create functionality; it also offers possibilities for and constraints on action, ways of looking at the world, and modes through which we can relate to one another. Designs thus, intentionally or not, embody values—ones we as a community of users sometimes accept, sometimes reject, sometimes build on, and sometimes alter.

This course will equip students to find their own answers to two key questions:

  1. What values do specific technology designs embody, and how and to what extent do they do so?
    We will look at current and historical case studies of design interventions to identify ways in which technologies can, intentionally or unintentionally, promote specific values and to analyze how those values play out in practice in the complex worlds of everyday life.
  2. How and to what extent is it possible to design technologies to reflect specific values?
    We will examine and practice a variety of design methods intended to incorporate values in design, and analyze their benefits and drawbacks.

These questions cross between two domains which are not often brought into conversation in undergraduate education: technology design and the social, cultural, and political analysis of technologies. In these course, we will develop a facility to think, speak, and act across these domains using techniques from critically-informed technology design and analysis. These techniques draw on and blend ideas from human-computer interaction, engineering, product design, science & technology studies, and the arts. This course is open to all students from engineering, the humanities, the social sciences, and the arts and design who are interested in reflecting on and improving the role of technology in society. No technical background is required or expected.

This course is oriented to an advanced undergraduate and master's student audience. An ability to read critically and willingness to take intellectual risks are essential in this course.

Learning objectives

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

For further information

If you have questions, please contact the instructor, Prof. Phoebe Sengers, at If you include 4240 in the subject line, my mail reader will highlight it for my attention.

You can download the full syllabus with all information from this website in print-friendly format.

Introduction: Values, Technology, and Design

What does it mean to build a technology that has a good impact on society? Can "values" even be built into technology? If not, does this mean designers have no responsibilty? If so, what values do technologies already have? How do they impose these values? How can we start designing with values in mind?

Aug 22
Technology, Design, and Social Impact
An introduction to the class. We'll review course mechanics, get a sense of the wide variety of approaches that have been used to design for a good social impact, and consider some of the possible social issues that come up in design.
Additional resources: Objectified. This is a great documentary about contemporary product design, with some discussion of social impact. Includes and an interview with noted critical designers Tony Dunne and Fiona Raby.
Aug 24
Values in design
How have values been thought about as part of design? We'll look at key perspectives from technology and product design.
Additional resources: A classic reading on how to bring values into the design process along the lines suggested by Nissenbaum: Flanagan, M., Howe, D. and Nissenbaum, H. Embodying Values in Technology. In Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Jeroen van den Hoven and John Weckert (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 322-353.
Aug 29
Speculative Design
We'll adapt Gaver's design workbook technique as a method to explore cultural and social issues in and through the early stages of design.
Aipperspach, Hooker, and Woodruff: The heterogeneous home; pay particular attention to this workbook example
Additional resources: Note: these papers, like many on the syllabus, are available only if you are logged in on Cornell networks. An easy way to get access from off campus is to use the Cornell Library's Passkey plug-in.
Not feeling confident about sketching? For a great how-to, see Mike Rohde's article on sketching as a design tool.
Another awesome paper describing design work drawing on speculative design is Gaver and Dunne: Projected realities. For more on how we can think about designs as a form of conceptual reflection, see Bill Gaver and John Bowers. 2012. Gaver and Bowers: Annotated Portfolios interactions 19, 4 (July 2012), 40-49.

Aug 31
Responding to readings through speculative design
We'll continue honing our skills at speculative design as a way to explore conceptual issues related to design.
Additional resources: Another nice example of working through ideas with speculative design: Pierce and Paulos: Some variations on a counterfunctional digital camera
Sep 4 - Labor Day
Sep 5
The 'impact' of design
What does it mean to say that a technology design has a certain social 'impact'? How can we understand the consequences of design?
Edgerton: Significance (This reading - like all those without a web link - is available in the course reader for purchase as the bookstore).
Sep 7
Case study of values and impact in design: Modernist architecture
We'll look at a detailed example of designers aiming for social impact with their design. In part, they achieved these aims; in others, they were wildly off. We'll use this case to think through the complexities of how to approach social impact through design.
Scott: The High-Modernist City
Using design to persuade

One way in which we might create a positive impact is by using technology to persuade people to think or act differently, by providing new forms of information or by suggesting different ways to see what is happening around them.

Sep 12
Persuasive computing
Designing software and hardware to persuade people to alter their ways of thinking or their behavior, and thereby contribute to solving social problems.
Additional resources: Another useful how-to for persuasive technology: Fogg: Creating persuasive technologies: An eight-step design process
Sep 14
Politics of artifacts
How do artifacts more generally 'persuade'? By what mechanisms do they encourage us to do some things and not others?
Sep 19
Political information visualization
How can - and should - we use information visualization to make a point?
Additional resources: A useful tactic for designing compellingly persuasive information campaigns is "Show, Don't Tell (by Doyle Canning, Patrick Reinsborough and Kevin Buckland)" (Beautiful Trouble, pp 174-175)). What to do with your visualization? How about Tactic: Guerilla Projection (by Samantha Corbin and Mark Read) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 52-53)?
A nice example of political visualization is the Data Viz Challenge, a contest to generate visualizations of where your tax dollars go.
Sep 21
Political games
Using game design to communicate political points of view..
Sep 26
Persuasion or coercion?
Reflecting on the politics and experience of persuasion
Additional resources: In class, I'll also be covering this argument: Brynjarsdottir et al: Sustainably unpersuaded.
Sep 28
Expanding our theories of social change
How do you decide what the problem is you are trying to solve? How can we expand our imaginations about how technologies - or non-technologies - can make change?
Additional resources: What are some other options for making social change? Beautiful Trouble is full of them. How about organizing a strike (by Stephen Lerner) ? Or jury-rig some solutions (by Gui Bueno)?
Re-engineering engineering

So far we've considered social issues mostly at the level of the interface and application, but sometimes social issues arise in the details of the code. Programmers may have difficulty knowing or addressing those issues, since they aren't generally trained in values. How could or should engineering practices be altered in order to embody different values?

Oct 3
Open source
Using open-source methods to expand the range of values embodied in contemporary engineering practice: why and how to.
Goldman and Gabriel: Building a Community (This is a section of How to do open source development - a fabulous resource for anyone looking to start an open source project)
Additional resources: Written for design practicioners: Dykstra-Erickson and Cheri: An Open Source Primer. ; Schlesinger: Working with Open Source: a Practical Guide; Bach and Twidale: Social Participation in Open Source: What It Means for Designers . Beautiful Trouble has useful advice for people who want to organize collectively with an open-source-style ethos: Tactic: Distributed Action (by Phil Aroneanu) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 36-39; Principle: Simple rules can have grand results (by Andrew Boyd) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 176-177); Principle: Make new folks feel welcome (by Jonathan Matthew Smucker) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 150-151); Principle: Enable, don't command ( by Kathryn Blume) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 132-133); Principle: Delegate ( by Josh Bolotsky and Andrew Boyd) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 122-123); Principle: Beware the tyranny of structurelessness (by Josh Bolotsky) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 102-103); Principle: We are all leaders (by Jonathan Matthew Smucker) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 203-204)
Oct 5
Activist Design
Designing technologies to fulfill activist agendas.
Oct 10 - Fall Break
Oct 12
Politics of algorithms
How do political issues become embodied in the details of how computer programs work? How could they become embodied in new ways?
Additional resources: An oldie but goodie - Introna and Nissenbaum: Shaping the Web: Why the Politics of Search Engines Matter.. This article explores the political consequences of search engine algorithms. It was the first landmark article to argue that search engines shape our political discourse, intentionally or unintentionally. While this article was written before the launch of Google (was there such a time?), its analysis is still relevant to search engines today.
Oct 12: Piazza post for miniproject 3 due
Oct 15: Piazza response for miniproject 3 due
Design responses
Oct 17
The Silicon Valley theory of social change
How do IT developers in Silicon Valley frame how they are making a difference? What kind of a difference are they making?
Additional resources: Issues about Silicon Valley's take on how social change happens have been hitting the news a lot. See, for example, Arieff's Solving all the wrong problems. Another take on who tech developers and designers are supposed to be, and the ideas of change embodied in them can be found in Lilly Irani: Hackathons and the Making of Entreprenuerial Citizenship
Oct 19
Technology design beyond Silicon Valley
What alternative framings of technology innovation exist if we stop assuming Silicon Valley is its center?
Expanding participation in design

Until now, engineers and designers have mostly been in the driver's seat. Here we expand beyond experts in technology - how can individuals and communities be involved in design decisions that affect them? Can we use this to improve the design of technology and its impact?

Oct 24
Participatory design
Developing methods and philosophies for designing technology directly with non-technically-trained participants.
Additional resources: Some concrete examples of participatory design exercises: Brandt: Designing exploratory design games; Kyng: Designing for cooperation: cooperating in design; Foverskov and Binder: Super Dots
Oct 26
Mental health day
Everyone needs a break sometimes. Take one today.
Additional resources: Principle: Pace yourself (by Tracey Mitchell) (Beautiful Trouble, pp 158-159); and note Laurie Penny's argument in Life-hacks of the poor and aimless that being critical of the idea of individual responsibility for wellness embodied in so many apps these days does not mean it's not OK to take care of yourself
Oct 31
Dialogic art practice
Art practices intended to engage communities and develop their abilities to comment on issues that matter to them
Nov 2
Challenges in participatory design
What happens to participatory design when it is deployed in complex social worlds that sometimes resist its central message.
Designing imagination
Technologies act not only through what you can do with them but also through the ways they shape our imaginations of what technology could be, who it could be for, and what kind of lives it could fit into. In this section we'll look at the social meanings of technology and how to design explicitly to use and reflect on this dimension.
Nov 7
When the impact is the narrative
Sometimes - perhaps much of the time -the primary impact of a technology is not what it does, but how it shapes our imaginations of what is possible or should happen.
Nov 9
Guest lecture: Social impact in the real world
In this class, we'll talk with Jehiel Oliver, the founder of social impact start-up Hello Tractor. His company is developing a cloud-based system to allow small farmers in Nigeria to affordably rent access to tractors. Jehiel will tell us about his experiences in working towards social impact in the tech startup world.
USAID Video: Hello Tractor
Nov 14
Critical design
Critical design as a strategy for reflecting on the social implications of technology and the design process itself.
Dunne & Raby: Chapter 4, Design Noir
Additional resources: Find critical and speculative design confusing? An accessible intro to how these kinds of design work with and against conventional design - what he here refers to as 'design resistance' is provided by Pierce: "Section 3.2: Introduction to Design Resistance"; pp. 70-84 only in Working by Not Quite Working: Designing Resistant Interactive Proposals, Prototypes, and Products.. Also, just because it's 'critical' doesn't mean we don't need to be critical about it - see e.g. Questioning the 'critical' in Speculative & Critical Design
Nov 16
Critical and speculative design workshop
Refining design techniques to express and question values and futures in design
Bleecker: "Part 3: Fact and fiction swap properties", pp 25-33 only of Design Fiction: A short essay on design, science, fact, and fiction
Nov 21
Final exam review
Nov 23 - Thanksgiving Break
Nov 28
Afrofuturism as design fiction
Imagining alternative technological worlds and histories which start from experiences of the African diaspora.
Womack: Evolution of a space cadet (in the course reader)
Additional resources: Yaszek's Race in science fiction: The case of Afrofuturism is a great overview and history of Afrofuturist science fiction and how it imagines new futures.
The rebooted Black Panther series from Marvel comics has a strong Afrofuturist element. See Marvel's Black Panther isn't just another black superhero.
Nov 30
Course review and wrap-up
Dec 1: (Optional) Mini-project redo
Dec 8: Our regular 24-hour take-home final exam will begin at 2pm
Dec 10: Our back-up take-home final exam will begin at 4:30pm. If you want to sign up for this date, you must do so on CMS before Dec 1.

Assignments Overview

All homework assignments will be submitted through the on-line Course Management System. If you log in and do not see our course listed, please contact Leo at lk423 @ or as a private message to the course instructors on piazza and request to be added to CMS.


The foundation for your work in this class are the course readings, which contain the core course content. You are expected to have thoughtfully read the day's reading prior to coming to class and taken notes on ideas in the reading and your thoughts in response. Course reading varies considerably in discipline and difficulty; be aware that reading length does not greatly correlate to expected reading time. You should bring the readings and your notes to class to ground our discussions.

Design responses

Over the course of the semester, you will document your thoughts and ideas in response to the readings in the form of design responses. These are both informal documents. A design response identifies a specific idea from the reading that caught your attention, and exploring its implications through a rough design sketch, annotated with thoughts about how the design relates to, extends, challenges, or otherwise explores the idea you chose to respond to. Every Sunday starting Sept 17, you will submit responses to your choice of 2 of the upcoming week's readings; on weeks where there is only one class, you only need to submit one response. You should expect each design response to take about 20-30 minutes to execute.

In the first unit of the course, we will build up to full design responses through predesign responses, in which you identify and respond to an idea of your choice from the text in simple written form. You will also hand in predesign responses rather than full design responses on weeks when you have a miniproject due.

Class participation

Your participation in class is not directly graded, but it is essential to your success in the course. This is not a lecture course; the class format is interactive and activities-based. In class we will analyze, build on, and debate about the course readings; practice design skills; work on homeworks; and engage in other activities to aid your facility in the course material. If you miss class, you are strongly recommended to review not only the class slides (which are often minimalist) but also notes from one of your co-students.


Over the course of the semester, we will have at least 5 unscheduled, brief pop quizzes randomly scheduled attendance taken in class. The purpose of these quizzes is to reward (a) attendance, (b) doing the readings ahead of time, and (c) paying attention in lecture. If you come to class having read through the readings and don't zone out, you can expect to do very well on these. Your lowest grade on the quizzes is dropped. This is done because we cover material in lectures and through exercises that is not available through any other means. Your attendance will be scaled so that an average score of 80 per cent on attendance will translate to a grade of A+

Design mini-projects

Over the course of the semester, you will have 5 design mini-projects which will help you develop facility in the design methods we are learning about in the course. For example, you may develop a design activity, try it out in class on your classmates, and then document the results.

Final exam

The final exam will be a written exam involving a critically engaged design analysis and exploration on an assigned topic in current events. The exam, minus the topic, will be released in November so that you can prepare for it.

Grade breakdown

Grading is not just a matter of numbers, but also of judgment. The instructor reserves the right to adjust grades by up to half a letter grade based on knowledge of your performance not summed up in this tidy formula.

Academic Integrity

My expectation is that you are generally aware of the need for academic integrity and self-motivated to achieve it. Issues with academic integrity that have come up in my courses in the past have been frequently due to students being unaware of the specific requirements of academic integrity at Cornell, rather than students trying to "game the system" for their own advantage. Some examples of situations I have encountered include:

I am required by the university to prosecute for such violations; doing so is particularly sad because they could have been avoided with a bit of pro-active education. I would therefore strongly encourage you to take Cornell's (brief) on-line tutorial on how to avoid unintentional plagiarism if you have not done so already. I particularly encourage this for students whose prior primary education was at a non-US institution as well as students who come from a substantially different disciplinary orientation than the sciences, social sciences, and humanities (e.g. art, journalism, law). You are responsible for understanding what constitutes academic integrity violations in Arts and Sciences at Cornell. Please contact me if you have any questions about how to achieve academic integrity in the context of this class (e.g., proper use of citations).

Late policy

The final exam carries a late penalty of 1 full letter grade (10 points out of 100) per 12 hours late, starting immediately after the final exam is due (i.e. a final exam which is one hour late will incur a full letter grade penalty).

Design responses (preparatory or regular) may be handed in up to 3 days after the assignment is due, and miniprojects may be handed in up to 5 days after the assignment is due. In either case, the assignment will incur a late penalty. The late penalty is 1/2 letter grade (5 points out of 100) per 24 hours late, starting immediately after the assignment is due (i.e. an assignment which is one hour late will incur a full 1/2 letter grade penalty).

Please note late homeworks may be delayed in grading, as they fall outside our regular course rhythm. Late final exams may result in a temporary grade of incomplete for the course.

Extension policy

Life happens. We believe you are the best judge of when you need an extension. Therefore, we allow you to choose when to give yourself an extension, as follows:

Additional homework extensions can only be granted by the professor and are only granted under truly exceptional circumstances.It is wise to save your free late passes for illness and unexpected events such as interviews.

Regrade policy and grading explanations

Questions about why you got a grade may be answered by any TA. You may also ask any TA whether they think it would be a good idea to ask for a regrade. However, no one on the TA team is actually allowed to change a grade once released, even if it is obviously, egregiously wrong. This power is reserved for Prof. Sengers.

It is our aim in this class to grade fairly and clearly. If there has been a serious error in grading, we want to know about this and fix it. You can let us know about a potential issue by requesting your assignment to be regraded.

There are two kinds of regrade requests in this course:

  1. The first kind is a mechanical regrade. These are clear, indisputable problems such as: the TA added my points up wrong; the TA thought I only submitted one response but I had two in my file; the TA took off a late fee but I had gotten an extension; I got someone else's comments on my assignment. These regrade requests are handled by sending an email to Prof. Sengers at sengers @ or by private note to Prof. Sengers on piazza. You can also approach Prof. Sengers in person in class or at her office hours.
  2. The second kind is a regrade that requires some judgement. These include issues such as: the TA may have misinterpreted the rubric; I got graded one way but my friend got graded another; I don't think the number of points I got for this is really fair, given what I did. These kind of regrade requests generally require some discussion, so that I can fully understand your point of view. You can submit this kind of regrade request in person by attending Prof. Sengers's office hours. If you cannot make the office hours, please contact her by email to make an appointment for a regrade request.

Please note:

Redo policy

You will be given an opportunity towards the end of the semester to redo one of your mini-projects (your choice). Your final grade for that assignment will be the average of the original and redone grade.


The course uses a course reader, which you can purchase at the Cornell Store.

The rest of the course readings are available on-line or will be handed out in class or via piazza. To access many of these readings through the links, you will need to be on the Cornell network, or logged in to the Cornell library through a proxy using your NetID. You can find out more about how to do this here.

Bibliography of course readings

Abileah, Rae and Jodie Evans. Principle: Bring the Issue Home. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Aipperspach, Ryan, Ben Hooker, and Allison Woodruff, 2009. The heterogeneous home. interactions 16, 1 (January 2009), 35-38.

Air, 2006. Preemptive Media.

Arieff, Allison, 2016. Solving All the Wrong Problems. The New York Times, July 9.

Aroneanu, Phil. Principle: Tactic: Distributed Action. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Asaro, Peter M, 2000. Transforming Society by Transforming Technology: The Science and Politics of Participatory Design. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies 10(4), pp 257-290.

Avle, Seyram and Silvia Lindtner. 2016. Design(ing) 'Here' and 'There': Tech Entrepreneurs, Global Markets, and Reflexivity in Design Processes. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 2233-2245.

Bach, Paula M., and Michael Twidale, 2010. Social Participation in Open Source: What It Means for Designers. interactions 17(3), pp 70-74.

Benkler, Yochai, and Helen Nissenbaum, 2006. Commons-Based Peer Production and Virtue. Journal of Political Philosophy 14(4), pp 394-419.

Bleecker, Julian, 2009. Design Fiction: A Short Essay on Design, Science, Fact, and Fiction.

Bloch, Nadine. Principle: Make the invisible visible. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Blume, Kathryn. Principle: Enable, Don't Command. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Bogost, Ian, 2006. Playing Politics: Videogames for Politics, Activism, and Advocacy. First Monday, Special Issue Number 7: Command Lines: The Emergence of Governance in Global Cyberspace.

Bolotsky, Josh. Principle: Beware the Tyranny of Structurelessness. Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Boyd, Andrew. Principle: Simple Rules Can Have Grand Results. Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Boyd, Andrew. Tactic: Prefigurative Intervention. Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Brandt, Eva, 2006. Designing Exploratory Design Games: A Framework for Participation in Participatory Design? In Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Participatory Design: Expanding Boundaries in Design Pp. 57-66. ACM.

Brynjarsdottir, Hronn, Maria Håkansson, James Pierce, Eric Baumer, Carl DiSalvo, and Phoebe Sengers, 2012. Sustainably Unpersuaded: How Persuasion Narrows Our Vision of Sustainability. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp. 947-956. ACM.

Bueno, Gui, 2012. Principle: Jury-rig Solutions. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds.. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Cairo, Alberto, 2013. Emotional Data Visualization: Periscopic's "U.S. Gun Deaths" and the Challenge of Uncertainty.

Canning, Doyle, 2012. Principle: Show, Don’t Tell. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Consolvo, Sunny, James A. Landay, and David W. McDonald, 2009. Designing for Behavior Change in Everyday Life. IEEE Computer 42(6), pp 86-89.

Data Viz Challenge, N.d.. Preemptive Media. Visualize Your Taxes: Grand Award Winner.

Davis, Ben, 2013. A Critique of Social Practice Art. international Socialist Review, Issue 90, July 2013.

DiSalvo, Carl, 2010. Design, Democracy, and Agonistic Pluralism. In D. Durling, ed., Proceedings of the Design Research Society Conference, pp. 366-371.

Dunne, Anthony, and Fiona Raby, 2001. Design Noir: The Secret Life of Electronic Objects. Birkhauser.

Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth, and Yann Cheri, 2007. An Open Source Primer. interactions, 14(6). pp 30-32.

Edgerton, David, 2007. The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History since 1900. Oxford University Press.

Ewing, John, 2012. Case Study: Virtual Streetcorners. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Flanagan, Mary, Daniel C. Howe, and Helen Nissenbaum, 2008. Embodying Values in Technology: Theory and Practice. In John Weckert, ed., Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, pp. 322-353. Cambridge University Press.,%20Howe%20&%20Nissenbaum%20-%20Embodying%20Values.pdf.

Fogg, BJ. 1998. Persuasive computers: perspectives and research directions. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '98). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 225-232. DOI=

Fogg, BJ. 2009. Creating persuasive technologies: an eight-step design process. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology (Persuasive '09). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 44, 6 pages. DOI:

Foverskov, Maria, and Thomas Binder, 2011. Super Dots: Making Social Media Tangible for Senior Citizens. In Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces. ACM.

Froehlich, Jon, Tawanna Dillahunt, Predrag Klasnja, Jennifer Mankoff, Sunny Consolvo, Beverly Harrison, and James A. Landay. 2009. UbiGreen: investigating a mobile tool for tracking and supporting green transportation habits. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '09). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1043-1052.

Goldman, Ron and Richard P. Gabriel, 2005. How To Do Open-Source Development.

Gaver, Bill, and John Bowers, 2012. Annotated Portfolios. interactions 19(4), pp 40-49.

Gaver, Bill, and Heather Martin, 2000. Alternatives: Exploring Information Appliances through Conceptual Design Proposals. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 209-216. ACM.

Gaver, William, 2011. Making Spaces: How Design Workbooks Work. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1551-1560. ACM.

Gaver, William, and Anthony Dunne, 1999. Projected Realities: Conceptual Design for Cultural Effect. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 600-607. ACM.

Gillespie, Tarleton, 2014. The Relevance of Algorithms. In Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society. Tarleton Gillespie, Pablo Boczkowski, and Kirsten Foot, eds. MIT Press.

Hustwit, Gary, 2009. Objectified.

Introna, Lucas D., and Helen Nissenbaum, 2000. Shaping the Web: Why the Politics of Search Engines Matters. The Information Society 16(3), pp 169-185.

Irani, Lilly C., 2015. Hackathons and the Making of Entrepreneurial Citizenship. Science, Technology & Human Values 40(5), pp 799-824.

Irani, Lilly C., and M. Six Silberman, 2013. Turkopticon: Interrupting Worker Invisibility in Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 611-620. ACM.

Jackson, Steven J. Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed, and Md. Rashidujjaman Rifat. 2014. Learning, innovation, and sustainability among mobile phone repairers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Proceedings of the 2014 conference on Designing interactive systems (DIS '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 905-914.

Kyng, Morten, 1991. Designing for Cooperation: Cooperating in Design. Communications of the ACM 34(12). 65-73.

Latour, Bruno, 2008. Where Are the Missing Masses? The Sociology of a Few Mundane Artifacts. In Johnson, Deborah J., and Jameson M Wetmore, eds. Technology and Society, Building Our Sociotechnical Future. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2008 pp. 151-180.

Lerner, Stephen, 2012. Tactic: General Strike. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Leslie, Ian, 2016. The Scientists Who Make Apps Addictive. 1843 Magazine. October/November 2016.

Liboiron, Max, 2014. Against Awareness, For Scale: Garbage Is Infrastructure, Not Behavior. Blog. Discard Studies: Social Studies of Waste, Pollution, & Externalities.

Liboiron, Max, 2015. How the Ocean Cleanup Array Fundamentally Misunderstands Marine Plastics and Causes Harm. Blog. Discard Studies: Social Studies of Waste, Pollution, & Externalities.

Lipartito, Kenneth, 2003. Picturephone and the Information Age: The Social Meaning of Failure. Technology and Culture 44(1), pp 50-81.

Martins, Luiza Prado de O., and Pedro Oliveira, N.d.. Questioning the "critical" in Speculative & Critical Design. Blog.

Mitchell, Tracey. Principle: Pace Yourself. In Andrew Boyd and Dave Oswald Mitchell, eds., 2012. Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. OR Books.

Miranda, Carolina A, 2014. How the Art of Social Practice Is Changing the World, One Row House at a Time. ArtNews. April 7, 2014.

Nelson, Alondra, 2002. "Making the Impossible Possible:" An Interview with Nalo Hopkinson. Social Text (Vol 20, No 2).

Nissenbaum, Helen, 2001. How Computer Systems Embody Values. Computer 34(3): 120-119.

Papanek, Victor J., 1973. Do-It-Yourself Murder: Social and Moral Responsibilities of Design. In Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change, pp. 65-95. New York: Bantam Books.

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