Specular Reflection from Woven Cloth

Piti Irawan and Steve Marschner.

ACM Transactions on Graphics 31:1 (January 2012).


The appearance of a particular fabric is produced by variations in both large-scale reflectance and small-scale texture as the viewing and illumination angles change across the surface. This paper presents a study of the reflectance and texture of woven cloth that aims to identify and model important optical features of cloth appearance. New measurements are reported for a range of fabrics including natural and synthetic fibers as well as staple and filament yarns. A new scattering model for woven cloth is introduced that describes the reflectance and the texture based on an analysis of specular reflection from the fibers. Unlike data-based models, our procedural model doesn’t require image data. It can handle a wide range of fabrics using a small set of physically meaningful parameters that describe the characteristics of the fibers, the geometry of the yarns, and the pattern of the weave. The model is validated against the measurements and evaluated by comparisons to high-resolution video of the real fabrics and to BTF models of two of the fabrics.


This paper has DOI 10.1145/2077341.2077352 and can be found in the ACM Digital Library.

Steve Marschner