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We evaluate Beehive using simulations, driven by a DNS survey and trace data. The simulations were performed using the same source code as our implementation. Each simulation run was started by seeding the network with just a single copy of each object, and then querying for objects according to a DNS trace. We compared the proactive replication of Beehive to passive caching in Pastry (PC-Pastry), as well as regular Pastry.

Since passive caching relies on expiration times for coherency, and since both Beehive and Pastry need to perform extra work in the presence of updates, we conducted a large-scale survey to determine the distribution of TTL values for DNS resource records and to compute the rate of change of DNS entries. Our survey spanned July through September 2003, and periodically queried web servers for the resource records of 594059 unique domain names, collected by crawling the Yahoo! and the DMOZ.ORG web directories. We used the distribution of the returned time-to-live values to determine the lifetimes of the resource records in our simulation. We measured the rate of change in DNS entries by repeating the DNS survey periodically, and derived an object lifetime distribution. We used this distribution to introduce a new version of an object at the home node.

We used the DNS trace [15] collected at MIT between 4 and 11 December 2000. This trace spans 4,160,954 lookups over 7 days featuring 1233 distinct clients and 302,032 distinct fully-qualified names. In order to reduce the memory consumption of the simulations, we scale the number of distant objects to 40960, and issue queries at the same rate of 7 queries per sec. The rate of issue for requests has little impact on the hit rate achieved by Beehive, which is dominated mostly by the performance of the analytical model, parameter estimation, and rate of updates. The overall query distribution of this trace follows an approximate Zipf-like distribution with parameter 0.91 [15]. We separately evaluate Beehive's robustness in the face of changes in this parameter.

We performed our evaluations by running the Beehive implementation on Pastry in simulator mode with 1024 nodes. For Pastry, we set the base to be 16, the leaf-set size to be 24, and the length of identifiers to be 128, as recommended in [22]. In all our evaluations, the Beehive aggregation and replication intervals were 48 minutes and the analysis interval was 480 minutes. The replication phases at each node were randomly staggered to approximate the behavior of independent, non-synchronized hosts. We set the target lookup performance of Beehive to average 1 hop.

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Next: Beehive Performance Up: Evaluation Previous: Evaluation 2004-02-11