Supervisor: Brian Leiter <>
Announced end of poll: June 5, 2009
Actual time poll closed: Sat Jun 6 09:34:08 2009
This is a public poll.
Actual votes cast: 106
Number of winning choices:
Condorcet completion rule:    (What is this?)
Schulze/Beatpath/CSSD
CIVS Ranked Pairs
MAM
Condorcet-IRV

Poll description

Rank order the philosophers below in terms of their importance for legal scholarship.

Result

1. Kant  (Condorcet winner: wins contests with all other choices)
2. Aristotle  loses to Kant by 49–40
3. Locke  loses to Kant by 48–37, loses to Aristotle by 48–46
4. Rawls  loses to Kant by 49–36, loses to Locke by 47–42
5. Mill (John Stuart)  loses to Kant by 47–37, loses to Locke by 43–41
6. Plato  loses to Kant by 56–31, loses to Mill (John Stuart) by 57–35
7. Hobbes  loses to Kant by 57–24, loses to Plato by 42–38
8. Marx  loses to Kant by 66–21, loses to Hobbes by 47–33
9. Hume  loses to Kant by 66–12, loses to Marx by 44–33
10. Aquinas  loses to Kant by 64–22, loses to Hume by 39–37
11. Wittgenstein  loses to Kant by 70–12, loses to Aquinas by 41–35
12. Habermas  loses to Kant by 71–11, loses to Wittgenstein by 37–35
13. Hegel  loses to Kant by 79–5, loses to Habermas by 38–36
14. Nozick  loses to Kant by 74–11, loses to Hegel by 38–36
15. Foucault  loses to Kant by 74–9, loses to Nozick by 42–33
16. Nietzsche  loses to Kant by 73–12, loses to Foucault by 39–32
17. Dewey  loses to Kant by 74–6, loses to Nietzsche by 38–28
18. Rorty  loses to Kant by 76–5, loses to Dewey by 33–27
19. Nagel (Thomas)  loses to Kant by 75–1, loses to Rorty by 31–27
20. Kuhn  loses to Kant by 75–4, loses to Nagel (Thomas) by 29–26
21. Tied:
Derrida  loses to Kant by 77–5, loses to Kuhn by 25–22
Quine  loses to Kant by 75–1, loses to Kuhn by 33–13
23. Gramsci  loses to Kant by 73–6, loses to Derrida by 28–19
24. Kripke  loses to Kant by 74–2, loses to Gramsci by 26–17

For simplicity, some details of the poll result are not shown.  

Result details

  123456789101112131415161718192021222324
1. Kant   -49 48 49 47 56 57 66 66 64 70 71 79 74 74 73 74 76 75 75 77 75 73 74
2. Aristotle   40 -48 44 50 65 54 65 66 65 68 72 78 75 70 79 75 73 75 76 77 79 74 77
3. Locke   37 46 -47 43 52 53 64 63 62 69 72 73 72 74 75 73 72 73 75 74 75 72 73
4. Rawls   36 45 42 -45 53 47 62 62 61 69 69 71 78 76 72 72 77 78 76 78 75 73 77
5. Mill (John Stuart)   37 44 41 45 -57 55 61 65 65 70 75 78 77 74 81 75 81 82 82 79 81 77 80
6. Plato   31 21 34 38 35 -42 50 52 52 61 62 64 60 59 67 67 65 68 70 70 71 69 71
7. Hobbes   24 32 27 36 32 38 -47 53 53 56 59 55 58 59 63 63 65 65 65 64 68 67 67
8. Marx   21 26 21 26 26 35 33 -44 45 54 55 57 61 61 59 61 62 69 63 68 65 67 64
9. Hume   12 15 15 19 18 24 21 33 -39 42 46 43 43 46 46 52 47 56 53 51 59 54 57
10. Aquinas   22 18 23 24 25 31 23 36 37 -41 50 52 51 50 50 59 51 59 56 53 63 58 63
11. Wittgenstein   12 18 13 15 17 21 22 26 27 35 -37 37 45 38 38 44 47 51 52 50 57 54 59
12. Habermas   11 19 12 18 13 26 23 24 31 31 35 -38 37 42 42 42 48 47 51 50 53 51 51
13. Hegel   5 9 12 15 13 19 23 24 27 27 36 36 -38 44 43 44 43 49 52 50 54 58 59
14. Nozick   11 12 9 7 9 24 23 22 25 29 28 36 36 -42 43 46 43 46 51 53 55 52 52
15. Foucault   9 18 12 11 14 27 20 17 26 31 32 29 33 33 -39 39 40 42 42 41 44 48 49
16. Nietzsche   12 8 13 19 9 17 18 21 24 28 31 33 30 32 32 -38 40 42 43 44 44 46 47
17. Dewey   6 9 9 9 11 14 12 13 15 17 22 24 25 26 31 28 -33 39 35 38 43 43 48
18. Rorty   5 9 6 6 4 13 10 11 17 21 17 15 24 24 22 21 27 -31 27 28 36 31 40
19. Nagel (Thomas)   1 5 5 4 2 10 9 7 10 13 14 19 20 14 23 22 21 27 -29 30 35 31 33
20. Kuhn   4 8 5 4 3 9 8 9 13 15 11 13 15 18 20 20 23 23 26 -25 33 27 34
21. Derrida   5 7 5 6 8 9 11 6 14 19 14 16 20 16 20 20 20 20 25 22 -25 28 30
22. Quine   1 1 3 7 2 4 3 7 4 7 2 12 9 12 17 13 13 14 18 13 25 -27 28
23. Gramsci   6 10 8 8 8 10 8 6 12 15 11 10 10 16 11 16 16 20 25 22 19 22 -26
24. Kripke   2 2 3 3 2 3 3 8 5 4 2 12 5 11 13 11 8 8 18 12 16 16 17 -

Ballot report

 Aquinas Aristotle Derrida Dewey Foucault Gramsci Habermas Hegel Hobbes Hume Kant Kripke Kuhn Locke Marx Mill (John Stuart) Nagel (Thomas) Nietzsche Nozick Plato Quine Rawls Rorty Wittgenstein
1. 12 1 9 8 17 24 16 24 2 3 5 24 24 4 5 13 15 2 11 6 24 7 24 10
2. 5 3 10 8 9 24 11 14 20 5 1 20 21 15 5 12 13 17 6 18 7 2 19 4
3. 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
4. 10 6 24 24 24 24 24 24 3 24 24 9 24 4 24 1 24 24 24 5 24 8 24 24
5. 24 2 20 17 No opinion 21 No opinion 24 24 No opinion 3 No opinion 24 1 5 3 22 4 15 6 No opinion 10 22 11
6. 8 4 23 9 21 No opinion 16 17 5 3 1 14 22 2 15 6 20 13 19 7 18 10 11 12
7. 6 5 9 10 11 13 12 7 3 5 4 20 19 3 8 1 No opinion 14 24 2 24 16 17 18
8. 5 9 24 12 24 15 24 11 2 8 10 24 24 1 6 4 13 24 7 14 24 3 24 24
9. 4 4 20 10 20 20 15 10 4 4 1 20 18 1 4 1 15 10 15 4 18 10 20 10
10. 23 2 23 23 13 23 23 9 11 10 1 23 23 8 11 3 20 23 20 21 23 6 23 19
11. 11 11 1 15 5 24 15 15 11 5 5 24 24 1 5 5 24 5 24 1 15 11 1 15
12. 24 8 24 24 3 24 4 24 24 12 1 24 24 2 24 3 24 24 11 9 24 1 24 24
13. 23 13 15 7 10 18 9 19 12 17 2 24 22 3 4 5 20 16 11 1 21 6 14 8
14. 2 1 18 10 19 20 21 11 12 3 8 17 13 4 24 7 22 24 5 6 14 15 16 9
15. 24 1 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 2 24 3 24 2 24 24 24 4
16. 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 6 24 2 24 24 3 5 4 24 24 24 7 24 8 24 24
17. 17 6 16 18 7 15 5 11 4 19 1 21 22 8 12 2 20 23 9 13 24 3 10 14
18. 7 8 24 24 14 24 9 15 6 24 1 24 24 3 10 4 11 13 5 12 24 2 24 24
19. 2 24 24 24 3 24 3 24 1 24 1 24 24 2 1 3 24 24 24 1 24 1 24 2
20. 11 1 20 4 19 21 14 12 10 3 13 23 15 2 17 5 24 18 16 7 17 6 22 9
21. 10 4 24 24 24 24 24 24 5 6 2 24 24 8 3 7 24 24 24 9 24 1 24 24
22. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 2 24 24 4 24 5 24 24 24 3 24 24 24 24
23. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
24. 1 4 11 7 12 17 16 15 2 14 5 13 18 3 19 6 20 23 21 22 10 8 24 9
25. 16 14 5 20 7 9 4 2 8 13 1 23 22 12 3 10 21 15 17 18 24 6 11 19
26. 18 8 17 24 12 23 7 14 2 5 6 22 19 1 10 3 15 21 11 13 16 4 9 20
27. 3 3 24 11 3 24 6 7 3 7 3 24 24 2 2 2 3 10 6 5 24 1 24 8
28. 6 2 19 16 13 17 19 11 3 10 5 19 18 9 8 12 19 14 19 7 15 4 19 1
29. 17 1 24 24 18 18 17 17 3 5 2 24 24 5 7 2 24 6 10 3 24 4 20 10
30. 24 3 24 5 24 24 1 24 24 24 6 24 24 24 4 7 24 24 24 24 24 2 24 24
31. 10 9 15 13 16 24 14 20 4 5 6 22 15 2 11 3 21 12 19 8 18 1 17 7
32. 10 9 24 7 5 24 7 7 7 5 5 24 24 2 2 2 6 8 3 24 24 1 24 8
33. 24 4 24 24 24 24 8 6 2 7 1 24 24 3 24 2 24 24 6 7 24 4 24 24
34. 24 4 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 24 24 3 24 24 24 24 24 2 24 24
35. 2 1 24 24 24 24 8 24 24 24 24 24 24 7 4 3 6 5 9 24 24 24 24 24
36. 15 1 14 17 10 23 24 9 11 7 6 18 16 4 8 3 19 12 22 5 20 2 21 13
37. 12 6 17 16 13 21 9 19 2 20 1 22 15 3 7 5 23 18 14 8 24 4 10 11
38. 24 24 2 9 3 4 5 24 24 24 24 24 6 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 7 8 10
39. 24 10 24 20 18 24 17 8 5 8 4 24 4 1 5 1 6 24 15 20 18 1 8 1
40. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24
41. 3 2 24 11 24 24 24 7 5 10 1 24 24 24 8 9 24 24 24 24 24 6 24 24
42. 10 5 24 11 14 15 15 7 6 5 3 13 10 1 2 2 3 5 5 2 14 10 5 3
43. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
44. 9 1 No opinion 24 24 24 24 2 4 10 24 No opinion 13 3 7 5 No opinion 8 No opinion 1 No opinion No opinion No opinion No opinion
45. 24 4 16 24 15 14 8 11 13 5 8 24 24 5 24 9 10 16 3 5 24 2 24 7
46. 5 1 21 15 23 22 11 10 3 4 2 24 20 6 7 8 14 9 10 1 14 15 12 13
47. 9 1 19 21 8 21 13 15 6 21 4 21 17 5 10 3 20 7 16 14 18 2 12 11
48. 2 3 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 4 24 24 24 24 5 24 24 24 24 24 6 24 24
49. 12 12 10 20 1 5 14 14 20 17 6 14 7 8 4 3 24 20 17 17 20 2 9 10
50. 15 1 10 21 11 24 14 16 18 17 4 24 8 5 7 2 24 20 9 3 19 6 13 12
51. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
52. 24 24 24 4 24 24 24 5 1 4 1 24 24 7 6 6 24 24 8 1 24 8 24 24
53. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 24 24
54. 3 1 No opinion 20 14 12 8 6 7 9 4 No opinion 21 5 10 16 19 15 17 2 22 13 18 11
55. 1 24 24 23 24 23 23 19 5 2 23 23 23 5 15 15 23 23 14 1 23 11 24 10
56. 3 2 24 24 24 24 24 8 24 24 6 24 24 7 24 5 24 6 24 4 24 1 24 24
57. 24 4 22 19 9 15 13 6 11 8 1 21 17 5 3 10 16 12 7 4 20 2 18 14
58. 3 3 10 23 12 No opinion 9 20 21 1 15 No opinion 12 1 24 1 No opinion 13 1 3 12 14 4 1
59. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
60. No opinion 1 8 No opinion 9 No opinion 3 No opinion No opinion No opinion 3 No opinion 10 6 No opinion 7 No opinion 11 5 2 No opinion 4 No opinion No opinion
61. 3 4 24 24 5 24 24 24 5 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 6 24 24 2 24 3
62. 10 2 13 21 1 23 14 16 7 7 5 20 19 3 8 9 11 4 17 6 22 7 18 15
63. 18 1 18 15 13 18 10 12 14 7 4 18 18 5 9 2 16 11 6 8 18 3 18 17
64. 2 3 24 4 24 24 24 8 1 9 2 24 24 1 7 5 24 24 10 6 24 2 24 24
65. 11 8 24 12 23 18 20 13 1 4 5 14 10 1 9 2 12 13 6 9 13 4 13 5
66. 6 10 12 No opinion 8 No opinion 1 13 5 No opinion 3 No opinion No opinion 2 11 14 No opinion 15 No opinion 9 No opinion 4 No opinion 7
67. 11 6 24 19 10 17 12 8 3 4 1 22 23 9 7 5 18 13 20 16 21 2 15 14
68. 24 5 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 2 24 24 4 24 3 6 24 6 1 24 5 24 24
69. 24 24 24 24 2 3 2 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 4 6 24 24 24 24 24 5 24 24
70. 16 3 9 17 7 No opinion 10 8 5 9 2 No opinion No opinion 4 5 6 No opinion 6 13 1 No opinion 13 15 10
71. 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 24 1 24 24 1 24 1 24 24 2 24 24 2 24 24
72. 3 1 24 24 24 24 24 5 24 24 24 24 24 24 6 24 24 4 24 2 24 24 24 24
73. 6 7 21 15 24 3 18 23 8 9 4 2 19 13 14 5 16 17 12 11 20 10 22 1
74. 1 3 24 24 24 24 24 11 2 8 4 14 24 9 7 6 24 24 24 5 12 13 24 10
75. 24 10 24 5 6 24 7 9 3 8 2 24 5 2 9 2 24 5 24 1 23 4 5 23
76. 23 2 20 14 10 22 6 5 9 12 4 24 17 3 15 1 21 10 19 13 22 7 16 8
77. 8 5 10 9 4 16 1 6 12 19 13 20 21 2 7 11 22 15 24 17 23 3 14 18
78. No opinion 1 15 No opinion 8 No opinion 20 9 3 5 6 No opinion No opinion 4 4 7 10 2 16 2 No opinion 5 No opinion 11
79. 2 1 24 No opinion 24 24 8 7 2 4 1 5 No opinion 2 8 4 6 7 4 2 6 3 No opinion 3
80. 11 6 No opinion 16 18 24 9 14 4 10 3 24 15 2 8 7 13 24 12 5 24 1 17 19
81. 2 1 22 13 23 24 8 17 6 16 9 19 11 5 15 3 21 20 18 4 12 7 14 10
82. 14 6 20 18 19 24 11 8 10 13 1 24 15 3 5 7 24 12 9 4 24 2 17 16
83. 6 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 3 24 4 24 24 1 24 5 24 24 24 24 24 2 24 24
84. 1 3 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 5 24 24 24 24 4 24 2 24 24
85. 3 4 24 6 24 24 10 2 8 24 1 24 24 7 11 24 24 24 24 5 24 9 24 11
86. 16 14 9 17 13 23 12 19 11 24 10 21 15 7 8 3 22 6 5 20 18 1 4 2
87. 4 24 24 5 24 24 11 24 24 24 24 24 24 9 13 2 24 24 9 24 24 24 1 24
88. 14 4 15 13 18 23 12 19 11 9 7 24 8 1 3 2 16 20 6 10 22 5 17 21
89. 16 4 24 24 11 24 15 7 1 14 2 24 24 6 10 5 24 9 12 13 24 3 17 8
90. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
91. 2 4 24 24 24 24 24 10 11 12 5 24 24 12 24 8 6 24 6 3 24 1 24 9
92. 20 18 11 14 12 7 4 10 5 9 6 21 15 17 1 16 22 2 23 19 24 3 8 13
93. 10 1 14 14 15 16 16 11 8 6 3 13 14 9 7 5 14 6 13 2 11 12 16 4
94. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
95. 20 15 4 11 5 12 6 13 14 19 3 24 7 8 9 1 21 16 22 10 23 2 18 17
96. 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
97. 24 5 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 4 24 24 2 24 3 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24
98. 24 3 24 24 7 24 24 8 24 5 1 9 24 24 24 24 2 11 6 4 10 24 24 12
99. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 24 24
100. 1 7 21 23 11 18 8 9 10 15 3 24 19 6 4 2 20 14 13 16 22 5 12 17
101. 24 1 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
102. 24 5 12 24 4 3 6 13 10 24 11 24 14 1 2 7 24 24 24 9 24 8 24 24
103. 1 1 24 No opinion 24 7 7 7 1 1 1 8 No opinion 24 24 1 10 1 11 1 1 10 5 1
104. 8 7 17 18 21 22 15 19 4 9 3 23 24 6 11 1 14 12 10 2 20 5 16 13
105. 13 3 24 15 21 18 8 16 11 9 2 18 17 5 10 7 22 23 14 4 19 6 12 1
106. 24 24 24 24 2 3 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 1 24 24 4 24 24 24 24 24 24

Ballots are shown in a randomly generated order.

[Download ballots in CSV format]

The following matrix shows the strength of the strongest beatpath connecting each pair of choices. Choice 1 is ranked above choice 2 if there is a stronger beatpath leading from 1 to 2 than any leading from 2 to 1.

  1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.
1. Kant   -49–40 48–37 49–36 49–40 56–31 57–24 66–21 66–12 64–22 70–12 71–11 79–5 74–11 74–9 73–12 74–6 76–5 75–1 75–4 77–5 75–1 73–6 74–2
2. Aristotle   . -48–46 47–42 50–44 65–21 54–32 65–26 66–15 65–18 68–18 72–19 78–9 75–12 70–18 79–8 75–9 73–9 75–5 76–8 77–7 79–1 74–10 77–2
3. Locke   . 45–44 -47–42 45–44 52–34 53–27 64–21 63–15 62–23 69–13 72–12 73–12 72–9 74–12 75–13 73–9 72–6 73–5 75–5 74–5 75–3 72–8 73–3
4. Rawls   . 45–44 45–44 -45–44 53–38 47–36 62–26 62–19 61–24 69–15 69–18 71–15 78–7 76–11 72–19 72–9 77–6 78–4 76–4 78–6 75–7 73–8 77–3
5. Mill (John Stuart)   . . . . -57–35 55–32 61–26 65–18 65–25 70–17 75–13 78–13 77–9 74–14 81–9 75–11 81–4 82–2 82–3 79–8 81–2 77–8 80–2
6. Plato   . . . . . -42–38 50–35 52–24 52–31 61–21 62–26 64–19 60–24 59–27 67–17 67–14 65–13 68–10 70–9 70–9 71–4 69–10 71–3
7. Hobbes   . . . . . . -47–33 53–21 53–23 56–22 59–23 55–23 58–23 59–20 63–18 63–12 65–10 65–9 65–8 64–11 68–3 67–8 67–3
8. Marx   . . . . . . . -44–33 45–36 54–26 55–24 57–24 61–22 61–17 59–21 61–13 62–11 69–7 63–9 68–6 65–7 67–6 64–8
9. Hume   . . . . . . . . -39–37 42–27 46–31 43–27 43–25 46–26 46–24 52–15 47–17 56–10 53–13 51–14 59–4 54–12 57–5
10. Aquinas   . . . . . . . . . -41–35 50–31 52–27 51–29 50–31 50–28 59–17 51–21 59–13 56–15 53–19 63–7 58–15 63–4
11. Wittgenstein   . . . . . . . . . . -37–35 37–35 45–28 42–33 43–32 45–28 47–17 51–14 52–11 50–14 57–2 54–11 59–2
12. Habermas   . . . . . . . . . . . -38–36 38–36 42–29 42–33 42–24 48–15 47–19 51–13 50–16 53–12 51–10 51–12
13. Hegel   . . . . . . . . . . . . -38–36 44–33 43–30 44–25 43–24 49–20 52–15 50–20 54–9 58–10 59–5
14. Nozick   . . . . . . . . . . . . . -42–33 43–32 46–26 43–24 46–14 51–18 53–16 55–12 52–16 52–11
15. Foucault   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -39–32 39–31 40–22 42–23 42–20 41–20 44–17 48–11 49–13
16. Nietzsche   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -38–28 40–21 42–22 43–20 44–20 44–13 46–16 47–11
17. Dewey   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -33–27 39–21 35–23 38–20 43–13 43–16 48–8
18. Rorty   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -31–27 29–26 30–25 36–14 31–20 40–8
19. Nagel (Thomas)   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -29–26 30–25 35–18 31–25 33–18
20. Kuhn   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -25–22 33–13 27–22 34–12
21. Derrida   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. 28–19 30–16
22. Quine   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -27–22 28–16
23. Gramsci   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -26–17
24. Kripke   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -