We motivate the design of a typed assembly language (TAL) and present a type-preserving translation from System F to TAL. The typed assembly language we present is based on a conventional RISC assembly language, but its static type system provides support for enforcing high-level language abstractions, such as closures, tuples, and user-defined abstract data types. The type system ensures that well-typed programs cannot violate these abstractions. In addition, the typing constructs admit many low-level compiler optimizations. Our translation to TAL is specified as a sequence of type-preserving transformations, including CPS and closure conversion phases; type-correct source programs are mapped to type-correct assembly language. A key contribution is an approach to polymorphic closure conversion that is considerably simpler than previous work. The compiler and typed assembly language provide a fully automatic way to produce certified code, suitable for use in systems where untrusted and potentially malicious code must be checked for safety before execution.
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