Translation of names to network addresses is an essential predecessor to communication in networked systems. The Domain Name System (DNS) performs this translation on the Internet and constitutes a critical component of the Internet infrastructure. While the DNS has sustained the growth of the Internet through static, hierarchical partitioning of the namespace and wide-spread caching, recent increases in malicious behavior, explosion in client population, and the need for fast reconfiguration pose difficult problems. The existing DNS architecture is fundamentally unsuitable for addressing these issues.
The foremost problem with DNS is that it is susceptible to denial of service (DoS) attacks. This vulnerability stems from limited redundancy in nameservers, which provide name-address mappings and whose overload, failure or compromise can lead to low performance, failed lookups and misdirected clients. Approximately 80% of the domain names are served by just two nameservers, and a surprising 0.8% by only one. At the network level, all servers for 32% of the domain names are connected to the Internet through a single gateway, and can thus be compromised by a single failure. The top levels of the hierarchy are served by a relatively small number of servers, which serve as easy targets for denial of service attacks . A recent DoS attack  on the DNS crippled nine of the thirteen root servers at that time, while another recent DoS attack on Microsoft's DNS servers severely affected the availability of Microsoft's web services for several hours . DNS nameservers are easy targets for malicious agents, partly because approximately 20% of nameserver implementations contain security flaws that can be exploited to take over the nameservers.
Second, name-address translation in the DNS incurs long delays. Recent studies [16,18,41] have shown that DNS lookup time contributes more than one second for up to 30% of web object retrievals. The explosive growth of the namespace has decreased the effectiveness of DNS caching. The skewed distribution of names under popular domains, such as .com, has flattened the name hierarchy and increased load imbalance. The use of short timeouts for popular mappings, as is commonly employed by content distribution networks, further reduces DNS cache hit rates. Further, manual configuration errors, such as lame delegations [27,29], can introduce latent performance problems.
Finally, widespread caching of mappings in the DNS prohibits fast propagation of unanticipated changes. Since the DNS does not keep track of the locations of cached mappings, but relies on timeout-based invalidations of stale copies, it cannot guarantee cache coherency. Lack of cache coherency in the DNS implies that changes may not be visible to clients for long durations, effectively preventing quick service relocation in response to attacks or emergencies.
Fresh design of the legacy DNS provides an opportunity to address these shortcomings. A replacement for the DNS should exhibit the following properties.
This paper describes Cooperative Domain Name System (CoDoNS), a backwards-compatible replacement for the legacy DNS that achieves these properties. CoDoNS combines two recent advances, namely, structured peer-to-peer overlays and analytically informed proactive caching. Structured peer-to-peer overlays, which create and maintain a mesh of cooperating nodes, have been used previously to implement wide-area distributed hash tables (DHTs). While their self-organization, scalability, and failure resilience provide a strong foundation for robust large-scale distributed services, their high lookup costs render them inadequate for demanding, latency-sensitive applications such as DNS . CoDoNS achieves high lookup performance on a structured overlay through an analytically-driven proactive caching layer. This layer, called Beehive , automatically replicates the DNS mappings throughout the network to match anticipated demand and provides a strong performance guarantee. Specifically, Beehive achieves a targeted average lookup latency with a minimum number of replicas. Overall, the combination of Beehive and structured overlays provides the requisite properties for a large scale name service, suitable for deployment over the Internet.
Our vision is that globally distributed CoDoNS servers self-organize to form a flat peer-to-peer network, essentially behaving like a large, cooperative, shared cache. Clients contact CoDoNS through a local participant in the CoDoNS network, akin to a legacy DNS resolver. Since a complete takeover from DNS is an unrealistic undertaking, we have designed CoDoNS for an incremental deployment path. At the wire protocol level, CoDoNS provides full compatibility with existing DNS clients. No changes to client-side resolver libraries, besides changing the identities of the nameservers in the system configuration (e.g. modifying /etc/resolv.conf or updating DHCP servers), are required to switch over to CoDoNS. At the back end, CoDoNS transparently builds on the existing DNS namespace. Domain names can be explicitly added to CoDoNS and securely managed by their owners. For names that have not been explicitly added, CoDoNS uses legacy DNS to acquire the mappings. CoDoNS subsequently maintains the consistency of these mappings by proactively checking with legacy DNS for updates. CoDoNS can thus grow as a layer on top of legacy DNS and act as a safety net in case of failures in the legacy DNS.
Measurements from a deployment of the system in Planet Lab  using real DNS workloads show that CoDoNS can substantially decrease the lookup latency, handle large flash-crowds, and quickly disseminate updates. CoDoNS can be deployed either as a complete replacement for DNS, where each node operates in a separate administrative and trust domain, or as an infrastructure service within an ISP, where all nodes are in the same administrative and trust domain.
The peer-to-peer architecture of CoDoNS securely decouples namespace management from a server's location in the network and enables a qualitatively different kind of name service. Legacy DNS relies fundamentally on physical delegations, that is, query handoffs from host to host until the query reaches a set of designated servers considered authoritative for a certain portion of the namespace owned by a namespace operator. Since all queries that involve that portion of the namespace are routed to these designated servers, the namespace operator is in a unique position of power. An unscrupulous namespace operator may abuse this monopoly by modifying records on the fly, providing differentiated services, or even creating synthetic responses that redirect clients to their own servers. Nameowners that are bound to that namespace have no other recourse. In contrast, name records in CoDoNS are tamper-proof and self-validating, and delegations are cryptographic. Any peer with a valid response can authoritatively answer any matching query. This decoupling of namespace management from the physical location and ownership of nameservers enables CoDoNS to delegate the same portion of the namespace, say .com, to multiple competing namespace operators. These operators, which are each provided with signing authority over the same space, assign names from a shared, coordinated pool, and issue self-validating name bindings into the system. Since CoDoNS eliminates physical delegations and designated nameservers, it breaks the monopoly of namespace operators and creates an even playing field where namespace operators need to compete with each other on service.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we describe the basic operation of the legacy DNS and highlight its drawbacks. Section 3 describes the design and implementation of CoDoNS in detail. In Section 4, we present performance results from the PlanetLab deployment of CoDoNS. We summarize related work in Section 5, and conclude in Section 6.