Quotations, Large Documents, and Footnotes

The topics in the title may seem unrelated, and strictly speaking, they are unrelated. However, in this section of the tutorial, we will be looking into quoting text, making chapters and sections and subsections, title page generation for a technical document, and finally, footnotes.


Quotations are indented and often a little smaller than the surrounding text. There are two different environments to format quotations.

\begin{quotation} is used for long quotations
\begin{quote} is used for one or more shorter quotations (does not indent the paragraphs)

Here is an example of a quotation using the \begin{quotation} environment.

Use the \begin{quote} environment to include a quotation, and make the quotation slightly smaller than the rest of the text (as in the example document). Start with quote.tex.

Here's the dvi output.

Accents and More Symbols

There are many symbols that are used in text that do not just appear on the keyboard - accents, unusual symbols (such as a footnote dagger, copyright, etc.). Here is a list of the control sequences LaTeX uses to format certain accents and symbols.

Make a document which has these sentences. Note that there is more than one way to accomplish this. Call your file accents.tex

There are some tricks to typesetting accents. You can leave off the braces and the next character is accented. That is, \'e is the same as \'{e}. Obviously, this doesn't work with accent commands which are letters, such as \c{} or \u{}.

Also, accents over dotted letters look bad. Therefore, you can use commands for the letters. Here's an example.

Larger Documents

Larger documents require special organization to make them more readable. Therefore, LaTeX provides for typesetting large document divisions, such as chapters, sections, subsections, paragraphs, etc. Of course, you could do it all by hand:

     {\Large\bf Related Work}

     In his other works, Caroll was careful

which would type set something like this:

Related Work

In his other works, Caroll was careful

However, that is not only time-consuming it doesn't allow for section numbering, which is customary if not necessary in larger documents. Also, you probably want different division headings in different sizes of fonts or boldface/italics.

So LaTeX provides the following document divisions:

\part - very large part of, say, a book
\chapter - chapter of book; not in {article} style
\section - section of the document
\subsection - sections then broken into subsections
\subsubsection - which can be broken into pieces
\paragraph - which can contain some ``paragraphs''
\subparagraph - which have even smaller pieces

Each document division command has one required argument, and numbering is automatic and nested. You can remove the numbering on any or all of the divisions by adding an "*" to the command as shown below.

\subsection{Strange Poetry}
\subsection*{Strange Poetry}

Here is an example of the commands in use, and here is the input file which created it.

Create a document that will typeset the following sections, and number them all. Use the spacing as an indication of the division level.

   United States
         Wide Open Spaces
            Big Bend
         Hot Weather
      New York
         Cold Winters
   United Kingdom

Here's the dvi output.

Title Page

There is a special command in LaTeX that will typeset the title page for you. All you have to do is supply the command with the correct information.

The basic format of the title page input is as follows:

\title{The Title}
\author{The Author(s)}
\date{The Date}

Note that if no date is given, today's date will be used. To leave the date out altogether, use \date{}.

If there are multiple authors and/or addresses, separate authors with \and. You can break a line in the usual way (\\) to add something like multiple line titles or addresses for the authors.

Next comes the abstract on most technical documents. An abstract is composed within an abstract environment, as in:


The text of the abstract is typed between the abstract delimiters. The abstract enviroment automatically creates the title "Abstract" and centers it above the abstract. Notice that it is in smaller type as well. After that the text of the document starts.

Create a document that will typeset to look like this. Call your document title.tex. Don't worry about the fraction or the math right now. Just get the rest of it typesetting correctly.


Footnotes are very easy to do. You simply put the command \footnote followed by the text of the footnote in the text where the you want the reference to be. Here's an example, and here's the text that created it:

     ``Imperial fiddlestick!'' said the King, 
     rubbing his nose, which had been hurt by 
     the fall.  He had a right to be a {\em little} 
     annoyed with the Queen, for he was covered with 
     ashes from head to foot.\footnote{{\em Looking Glass}}

Notice in the output that the number is automatically generated and placed in the document, both in the text and in the footer.

Non-Numbered Footnotes

The \thefootnote TeX command creates non-numbered footnotes. It will use symbols rather than numbers if you put the following command in the preamble of your document.


Everything is done automatically by LaTeX.

Create a document that will typeset footnotes like this. You can copy the text from this Web page (see above) and change it as necessary. Call your file foot.tex

Author's Footnotes

There is a specific command in LaTeX, \thanks, to put footnotes for authors on the title page of a paper. You insert the \thanks command immediately following the author's name.

Use the file called title.tex that you created earlier and modify it to add the authors' footnotes. Here's the text for each of the authors:

Joan Doe was "Supported by various large corporations with interesting grants."
John Q. Public was "Supported by his friends and family."

Here's the dvi output.

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Last modified 19 Jan 1995 by Denise Moore (denise@cs.cornell.edu).