C. Papers in Journals
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Axiomatic definitions of programming languages:
a theoretical assessment,
Journal of the ACM
29:2, April, 1982, pp. 555576 (with A. R. Meyer).
 Deterministic propositional
dynamic logic: finite models, complexity, and completeness,
Journal of Computer and Systems
Science 25:3, 1982, pp. 402417
(with M. BenAri and A. Pnueli).
 The propositional dynamic logic of deterministic,
wellstructured programs,
Theoretical Computer Science 27,
1983, pp. 127165 (with J. H. Reif).
 Effective axiomatizations
of Hoare Logics,
Journal of the ACM 30:3, 1983,
pp. 612637 (with E. M.
Clarke and S. M. German).
 Deterministic process logic is elementary,
Information and Control
57:1, 1983, pp. 5689.
 Decision procedures and expressiveness in the temporal logic of
branching time,
Journal of Computer and Systems Science 30:1, 1985, pp. 124
(with E. A. Emerson).
 Optimal precision in the presence of uncertainty,
Journal of Complexity 1,
1985, pp. 170196
(with N. Megiddo and A. Munshi).
 Equations between
regular terms and an application to process logic,
SIAM J. Computing 14:4, 1985, pp. 935942 (with
A. Chandra, A. R. Meyer, and R. Parikh).
 ``Sometimes'' and ``not never'' revisited:
on branching vs. linear time,
Journal of the ACM 33:1, 1986, pp. 151178
(with E. A. Emerson).
 On time versus space III,
Math. Systems Theory 19, 1986, pp. 1328
(with M. C. Loui, A. R. Meyer, and D. Weise).
 On the possibility and impossibility of achieving clock
synchronization,
Journal of Computer and Systems Science 32:2, 1986, pp. 230250,
(with D. Dolev and H. R. Strong).
 Cheating husbands and other stories: a case study in
knowledge, action, and communication, Distributed Computing
1:3, 1986, pp. 167176 (with D. Dolev and Y. Moses).
 Taken by surprise: the paradox of the surprise test revisited,
Journal of Philosophical Logic 15:3, 1986, pp. 281304
(with Y. Moses).
 A new look at faulttolerant network
routing,
Information and Computation 72:3, 1987, pp. 180196
(with D. Dolev, B. Simons, and H. R. Strong).
 A logic to reason about likelihood,
Artificial Intelligence 32:3, 1987, pp. 379405
(with M. O. Rabin).
 Belief, awareness, and limited reasoning,
Artificial Intelligence 34, 1988, pp. 3976
(with R. Fagin).
 I'm OK if you're OK: On the notion of trusting communication,
Journal of Philosophical Logic
17:4, 1988, pp. 329354
(with R. Fagin).
 The complexity of reasoning about knowledge and time, I:
lower bounds, Journal of Computer
and Systems Science 38:1, 1989, pp. 195237 (with M. Y. Vardi).
 Likelihood, probability, and
knowledge, Computational Intelligence 5, pp. 151160, 198 9
(with D. A. McAllester).
 Reasoning about procedures as parameters in the language
L4, Information and
Computation 83:3, 1989, pp. 265359 (the whole volume)
(with S. M. German and E. M. Clarke).
 Modelling knowledge and action in distributed systems,
Distributed Computing 3:4, 1989, pp. 159177
(with R. Fagin).
 Completeness of rewrite rules and rewrite strategies
for FP, Journal of the ACM 37:1, 1990, pp. 86143
(with J. H.
Williams and E. L. Wimmers).
 Knowledge and common knowledge in a distributed
environment, Journal of the ACM 37:3, 1990, pp. 549587
(with Y. Moses).
 A logic for reasoning about probabilities,
Information and Computation 87:1,2, 1990,
pp. 78128 (with R. Fagin and
N. Megiddo)
 An analysis of
firstorder logics of probability,
Artificial Intelligence 46, 1990, pp. 311350.
 Presburger arithmetic with unary predicates is complete,
Journal of Symbolic Logic 56:2, 1991, pp. 637642.

The relationship between knowledge, belief, and certainty,
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence 4,
1991, pp. 301322.
 A modeltheoretic analysis of knowledge,
Journal of the ACM 38:2, 1991, pp. 382428
(with R. Fagin and M. Y. Vardi).

A propositional modal interval logic, Journal of the ACM 38:4, 1991, pp. 935962 (with Y. Shoham).

Clock synchronization and the power of broadcasting,
Distributed Computing 5:2, 1991, pp. 7383
(with I. Suzuki).

Uncertainty, belief, and probability,
Computational Intelligence 7, 1991, pp. 160173
(with R. Fagin).
 What can machines know? On the properties of knowledge in
distributed systems,
Journal of the ACM 39:2, 1992, pp. 328376
(with R. Fagin and M. Y. Vardi).

Two views of belief: belief as generalized probability and belief as
evidence,
Artificial Intelligence 54, 1992, pp. 275317
(with R. Fagin).

A guide to completeness and complexity for modal logics
of knowledge and belief,
Artificial Intelligence 54,
1992, pp. 319379 (with Y. Moses).

A little knowledge goes a long way: knowledgebased derivations and
correctness proofs for a family of protocols,
Journal of the ACM 39:3, 1992, pp. 449478 (with L. Zuck).

What is an inference rule?,
Journal of Symbolic Logic 57:3, 1992, pp. 10181045
(with R. Fagin and M. Y. Vardi).
 Messageoptimal protocols for Byzantine agreement,
Mathematical Systems Theory 26, 1993, pp. 41102
(with V. Hadzilacos).
 The failure discovery problem,
Mathematical Systems Theory 26, 1993, pp. 103129
(with V. Hadzilacos).

Knowledge, probability, and adversaries,
Journal of the ACM 40:4, pp. 917962,
1993 (with M. Tuttle).
 Naming and identity in epistemic logics, I: The propositional
case, Journal of Logic and Computation 3:4, 1993,
pp. 345378
(with A. J. Grove).

Reasoning about knowledge and probability,
Journal of the ACM 41:2, 1994,
pp. 340367 (with R. Fagin).

Decidability and expressiveness for firstorder logics of probability,
Information and Computation 112:1, 1994, pp. 136
(with M. Abadi).
 Random worlds and maximum entropy,
Journal of AI Research 2, 1994, pp. 3388
(with A. J. Grove and D. Koller).
 Zeroone laws for modal logic, Annals of Pure and
Applied Logic 69, 1994, pp. 157193
(with B. M. Kapron).
 Full abstraction and expressive completeness for FP,
Information and Computation 118:2, 1995, pp. 246271
(with E. L. Wimmers).
 Dynamic
faulttolerant clock synchronization,
Journal of the ACM 42:1,
1995, pp. 143185 (with B. Simons, H. R. Strong, and
D. Dolev).
 The effect of bounding the number of primitive propositions
and the depth of nesting on the complexity of modal logic,
Artificial Intelligence 75:2, 1995, pp. 361372.
 Levesque's axiomatization of only knowing is incomplete,
Artificial Intelligence 74:2, 1995, pp. 381387
(with G. Lakemeyer).
 A nonstandard approach to the logical omniscience problem,
Artificial Intelligence, 79:2, 1995, pp. 203240
(with R. Fagin and M. Y. Vardi).
 Asymptotic conditional probabilities: the unary case,
SIAM Journal on Computing, 25:1, 1996, pp. 151,
(with A. J. Grove and D. Koller).
 Asymptotic conditional probabilities: the nonunary case,
Journal of Symbolic Logic 61:1, 1996, pp. 250275
(with A. J. Grove and D. Koller).
 Should knowledge entail belief?, Journal of Philosophical Logic 25:5, 1996, pp. 483494.

From statistical knowledge bases to degrees of belief,
Artificial Intelligence 87:12, 1996, pp. 75143
(with F. Bacchus, A. J. Grove, and D. Koller).

A theory of knowledge and ignorance for many agents,
Journal of Logic and Computation 7:1, 1997, pp. 79108.

A critical reexamination of default logic, autoepistemic logic, and only knowing,
Computational Intelligence 13:1, 1997, pp. 144163.

On ambiguities in the interpretation of game trees, Games and Economic Behavior 20, 1997, pp. 6696.

On the expected value of games with absentmindedness,
Games and Economic Behavior 20, 1997, pp. 5165 (with
A. Grove).
 Knowledgebased programs, Distributed Computing 10:4,
1997, pp. 199225 (with R. Fagin, Y. Moses, and M. Y. Vardi).

Modeling belief in dynamic systems. Part I: Foundations,
Artificial Intelligence 95:2, 1997, pp. 257316 (with N. Friedman).
 Defining relative likelihood in partiallyordered preferential
structures, Journal of AI Research 7, 1997, pp. 124.
 Performing work efficiently in the presence of faults, SIAM Journal
on Computing 27:5, 1998 (with C. Dwork and O. Waarts).
 On the knowledge requirements for
tasks,
Artificial Intelligence 98:12, 1998, pp. 317349
(with R. Brafman and Y. Shoham).
 Modeling belief in dynamic systems. Part II: Revision and Update,
Journal of AI Research 10, 1999, pp. 117167 (with
N. Friedman).
 Common knowledge revisited,
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 96, 1999, pp. 89105
(with R. Fagin, Y. Moses, and M. Y. Vardi).
 Hypothetical knowledge and counterfactual reasoning,
International Journal of Game Theory 28:3, 1999, pp. 315330.
 The hierarchical approach to modeling knowledge and common
knowledge,
International Journal of Game Theory 28:3, 1999,
pp. 331365 (with R. Fagin, J. Geanakoplos, and M. Y. Vardi).

Settheoretic completeness for epistemic and conditional logic
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial
Intelligence 26, 1999, pp. 127.
 A counterexample to theorems of Cox and Fine,
Journal of AI Research, 10, 1999, pp. 6785.

Belief revision: a critique,
Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 8, 1999, pp. 401420
(with N. Friedman).
 Cox's Theorem revisited,
Journal of AI Research 11, 1999, pp. 429435.
 Reasoning about noisy sensors in
the situation calculus, Artificial Intelligence, 1999,
pp. 131169 (with F. Bacchus and H. J. Levesque).
 Axiomatizing causal reasoning,
Journal of AI Research 12, 2000, pp. 317337.
 A note on knowledgebased programs
and specifications, Distributed Computing, 13:3, 2000,
pp. 145153.
 Firstorder conditional logic for
default reasoning revisited,
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 1:2,
2000, pp. 175207 (with N. Friedman and D. Koller).
 Multiagent only knowing,
Journal of Logic and Computation
11:1, 2001, pp. 4170 (with G. Lakemeyer).
 A logic for SDSI's linked local
named spaces, Journal of Computer Security, 9:1,2,
2001, pp. 4774 (with R. van der Meyden).
 Alternative semantics for unawareness,
Games and Economic Behavior 37, 2001, pp. 321339.
 Substantive rationality and backward induction
Games and Economic Behavior 37, 2001, pp. 425435.
 A decisiontheoretic approach to
reliable message delivery,
Distributed Computing 14, 2001, pp. 116 (with
F. Chu).
 Conditional plausibility measures and
Bayesian networks,
Journal of AI Research 14, 2001, pp. 359389.
 On the NPCompleteness of finding an
optimal strategy in games with common payoffs, 2001,
International Journal of Game Theory 30:1, 2001,
pp. 99106 (with F. Chu).

Plausibility measures and default reasoning,
Journal of the ACM 48:4, 2001, pp. 648685 (with
N. Friedman).

A characterization of eventual Byzantine agreement,
SIAM Journal on Computing 31:3, 2001, pp. 838865
(with Y. Moses and O. Waarts).
 Characterizing the common prior
assumption, Journal of Economic Theory, 106:2,
2002, pp. 316355.
 A logic for reasoning about upper
probabilities, Journal of AI Research 17, pp. 5781,
2002 (with R. Pucella).
 A computer scientist looks at game
theory, Games and Economic Behavior 45:1, 2003,
pp. 114131.
 A logical reconstruction of SPKI,
Journal of Computer Security 11:4, 2003, pp. 581614
(with R. van der Meyden).
 On the relationship between strand
spaces and multiagent systems,
ACM Transactions on Information and System Security 6:1,
2003, pp. 4370 (with R. Pucella).
 Updating probabilities, Journal
of AI Research 19,
2003 (with P. Grunwald).
 Complete axiomatizations for reasoning
about knowledge and time, SIAM Journal on Computing
33:2, 2004, pp. 674703
(with R. van der Meyden and M. Vardi).
 A minimumenergy pathpreserving
topologycontrol algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Wireless
Communications 3:3, 2004, pp. 910921 (with L. Li).
 Representation dependence in
probabilistic inference, Journal
of AI Research 21, pp. 319356, 2004 (with D. Koller).
 Reasoning about common knowledge with
infinitely many agents,
Information and Computation 191:1, 2004, pp.140 (with
R. Shore).
 Using counterfactuals in
knowledgebased programming,
Distributed Computing 17:2, 2004, pp. 91106 (with
Y. Moses).
 Great expectations. Part II:
Generalized expected utility as a universal decision rule,
Artificial Intelligence 159:1,2, 2004, pp. 207230
(with F. Chu).
 Responsibility and blame: A
structuralmodel approach,
Journal of AI Research 22, 2004, pp. 93115 (with
H. Chockler).
 Causes and explanations: A
structuralmodel approachPart I:
Causes, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
56:4,2005, pp. 843887(with J. Pearl).
 Causes and explanations: A
structuralmodel approachPart II: Explanation,
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
56:4, 2005, pp. 889911
(with J. Pearl).
 A conebased distributed topologycontrol algorithm for wireless
multihop networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networks
13:1, 2005, pp. 147159
(with L. Li, M. Bahl, Y. Wang, R. Wattenhofer).
 A knowledgetheoretic analysis of
uniform distributed
coordination and failure detectors, Distributed
Computing 17:3, 2005, pp. 223236 (with A. Ricciardi).
 Anonymity and information hiding in
multiagent systems,
Journal of Computer Security
13:3, 2005, pp. 483514
(with K. O'Neill).
 Probabilistic algorithmic
knowledge, Logical Methods in Computer Science 1:3, 2005
(with R. Pucella).
 A logic for reasoning about evidence,
Journal of AI Research 26, 2006, pp. 134 (with R. Pucella).
 Great expectations. Part I:
On the customizability of generalized expected utility,
Theory and Decision, 64:1, 2008, pp. 136 (with F. Chu).
 Gossipbased ad hoc routing,
IEEE/ACM Transactions on
Networking 14:3, 2006, pp. 479491 (with Z. Haas and L. Li).
 Characterizing and reasoning about
probabilistic and
nonprobabilistic expectation, Journal of the ACM
54:3, 2007
(with R. Pucella).
 Characterizing the NPPSPACE gap
in the satisfiability problem for modal logic,
Journal of Logic and Computation 17:4,
pp. 795806, 2007 (with L. Rego).
 Interactive awareness
revisited,
Games and Economic Behavior 62:1, 2008, pp. 232262
(with L. Rego)
 What causes a system to satisfy a
specification?,
ACM Transactions on Computational Logic
9:3, 2008 (with H. Chockler and O. Kupferman).
 A formal foundation for XrML,
Journal of the ACM 55:1, 2008 (with V. Weissman).
 Using firstorder logic to reason
about policies,
ACM Transactions on Information and System Security 11:4,
2008 (with V. Weissman).
 Secrecy in multiagent systems,
ACM Transactions on Information and System Security 12:1,
2008, (with K. O'Neill).
 A nonstandard characterization of
sequential equilibrium, perfect equilibrium, and proper equilibrium,
International Journal of Game Theory 3838:1, 2009,
pp. 3750.
 Intransitivity and vagueness,
Review of Symbolic Logic 1:4, 2009, pp. 530547.
 Reasoning about knowledge of
unawareness, Games and Economic Behavior 67:2, 2009,
pp. 503525 (with L. Rego).
 On definability in multimodal
logic, Review of Symbolic Logic 2:3, 2009,
pp. 451468 (with D. Samet and E. Segev).
 Defining knowledge in terms
of belief: the modal logic perspective, Review of
Symbolic Logic 2:3, 2009, pp. 469487
(with D. Samet and E. Segev).
 Evidence with uncertain likelihoods,
Synthese 171:1, 2009, pp. 111133 (with R. Pucella).
 Lexicographic probability, conditional
probability, and nonstandard probability, Games and Economic
Behavior
68:1, 2010, pp. 155179.
 On spectrum sharing games,
Distributed Computing 22:4,
2010, pp. 235248 (with M. M. Halldorsson, L. Li, and V. Mirrokni).
 A knowledgebased analysis of global
function computation,
Distributed Computing 23:3, 2010, pp. 197224 (with
S. Petride).
 General cognitive principles for learning structure in time and
space, Trends in Cognitive Science 14:6, 2010,
pp. 249258
(with M. Goldstein, H. Westerfall, A. Lotem, L. Onnis, J. Schwade,
S. Edelman).
 Causality in Databases, IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin
33:3, 2010, pp. 5967 (with A. Meliou, W. Gatterbauer, C. Koch,
K. F. Moore, and D. Suciu).
 Dealing with logical
omniscience, Artificial Intelligence
175:1, 2011, pp. 220235 (with R. Pucella).
 Knowledgebased synthesis of
distributed systems using event
structures, Logical Methods in Computer Science 7:2,
2011 (with M. Bickford, R. L. Constable, and
S. Petride).
 Multiagent learning in large
anonymous games,
Journal of AI Research 40, 2011, pp. 571598 (with
I. A. Kash and E. J. Friedman).
 Viewpoint: Journals for Certification,
Conferences for Rapid Dissemination, Communications of the
ACM 54:8, 2011,
pp. 3638 (with D. Parkes).
 Generalized solution concepts in
games with possibly unaware
players, International Journal of Game Theory
41:1, 2012,
pp. 131155 (with L. C. Rego).

Optimizing scrip systems: Crashes,
altruists, hoarders, sybils and
collusion, Distributed Computing 25:5, 2012, pp. 335357 (with I. A. Kash and
E. J. Friedman).

Making decisions using sets of
probabilities: updating, time
consistency, and calibration, Journal of AI Research
42, 2011, pp. 393426 (with P. D. Grunwald).
 Modeling adversaries in a logic for
security protocol analysis,
Logical Methods in Computer Science 8:1, 2012
(with R. Pucella).
 Iterated regret minimization: a new
solution concept, Games
and Economic Behavior 74:1, 2012, pp. 194207 (with R. Pass).
 Coevolution of learning and
dataacquisition mechanisms: a model
for cognitive evolution, Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society B 367, pp. 268626984 (with A. Lotem).
 Reasoning about knowledge of
unawareness revisited, Games and Economic Behavior
67:2, 2009, pp. 503525 (with L. C. Rego).
 Extensive games with possibly
unaware players, Mathematical Social Sciences
70, 2014, pp. 4258, 2013 (with L. Rego).
 Compact representations of
extended causal models, Cognitive Science
37:6, 2013, pp. 9861010 (with C. Hitchcock).
 From causal models to counterfactual
structures,
Review of Symbolic Logic 6:2, 2013, pp. 305322.
 Conservative belief and rationality,
Games and Economic Behavior 80, 2013, pp. 186192 (with R. Pass).
 Decision theory with resourcebounded
agents. Topics in Cognitive Science 6:2, 2014, pp. 245257
(with R. Pass and L. Seeman).
 A logic for reasoning about
ambiguity, Artificial Intelligence 209, 2014,
pp. 110 (with W. Kets).
(with W. Kets).
 A procedural characterization of solution concepts in games,
Journal of AI Research 49, 2014, pp. 143170 (with Y. Moses).
 Conditional belief types, Games and Economic
Behavior 87, 2014, pp. 253268 (with A. Di Tillio and
D. Samet).
 Algorithmic rationality: game theory with costly computation,
Journal of Economic Theory 156, 2015 pp. 246268
(with R. Pass).
 An equilibrium analysis of scrip
systems, ACM
Transactions on Economics and Computation 3:3, 2015, (with I. A. Kash and
E. J. Friedman).
 Graded causation and defaults,
British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66:2,
2015, pp. 413457 (with
C. Hitchcock).
 Weighted sets of probabilities and minimax weighted expected
regret: new approaches for representing uncertainty and making
decisions, Theory and Decision 79:3, 2015, pp. 415450 (with
S. Leung).
 Cause, responsibility, and blame: a structuralmodel approach,
Law, Probability, and Risk 14:2, 2015, pp. 91118.
 The role of the protocol in anthropic reasoning,
Ergo 2:9, 2015, pp. 195206.
 Ambiguous language and common
priors, Games and Economic Behavior 90, 2015,
pp. 171180 (with W. Kets).
 Weighted regretbased likelihood: a new approach to describing
uncertainty, Journal of AI Research 54, 2015, pp. 471492.
 Maxmin weighted expected utility: a simpler
characterization, Theory and Decision 80:4,
2016, pp. 581610 (with S. Leung).
 Appropriate causal models and stability of causation,
Review of Symbolic Logic 9:1, 2016, pp. 76102.
 The bottleneck may be the solution, not the problem (invited
commentary), Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39, 2016 (with
A. Lotem, O. Kolodny, L. Onnis, and S. Edelman).
 Minimizing Regret in Dynamic Decision Problems, Theory and Decision 811,
2016, pp. 123151 (with S. Leung).
 Characterizing solution concepts in
terms of common knowledge of rationality,
International Journal of Game Theory, 46:2, 2017,
pp. 457473 (with Y. Moses).
 Sufficient conditions for
causality to be transitive, Philosophy of Science,
83:2, 2016, 213226.
 Updating probability: tracking statistics as criterion, British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science 68:3, 2017, pp. 725743
(with B. van Fraassen).
 From qualitative to
quantitative proofs of security properties using firstorder conditional
logic, Journal of Computer Security 25, 2017, pp. 119.
 Reasoning about rationality,
Games and Economic Behavior 104, 2017,
pp. 146164 (with A. Bjorndahl and R. Pass).
 The computational complexity of
structurebased causality,
Journal of AI Research 58, 2017, pp. 431341
(with G. Aleksandrowicz, H. Chockler, and A. Ivrii).
 The evolution of cognitive mechanisms in
response to cultural innovations Proceedings of the National
Academy of Science 114:30, 2017, pp. 79157922 (with
A. Lotem, S. Edelman, and O. Kolodny).
 Is statedependent valuation more adaptive than simpler rules?,
Behavioural Processes 147, 2018, pp. 3337 (with
L. Seeman).
 Incentivecompatible mechanisms for
norm monitoring in open
multiagent systems, Journal of AI Research 62, 2018,
pp. 433459 (with N. Alechina, I. Kash, and B. Logan).
 Game theory with translucent
players International Journal of Game
Theory 47:3, 2018, pp. 949976
(with R. Pass).
 A note on the existence of
ratifiable strategies, Review of Symbolic Logic, 2019, to appear.
 The truth behind the myth of the folk
theorem, Games and Economic Behavior, to appear, 2019
(with R. Pass and L. Seeman).
 Distributed protocols for leader
election: a gametheoretic perspective,
ACM Transactions on Economics and Computation, 2019, to appear
(with I. Abraham and D. Dolev).
Next: D. Papers in Conference Proceedings
Up: Publications
Previous: B. Articles in Books
Joe Halpern
February, 2020