CS5430 Homework 3: Authentication of People

General Instructions. You may (but do no have to) collaborate with one other student on this assignment. If you do collaborate then both students should form a CMS group and submit their solution to that group. Both students are responsible for all of the answers.

Due: October 8, 2020 at 10:00am. No late assignments will be accepted.

Submit your solution using CMS. Prepare your solution as .pdf, as follows:

  1. Chapter 5 exercise 5.5.
  2. Step 1 of Figure 5.7 in Chapter 5 stipulates that nonce r be unpredictable. The author of the protocol might instead have stipulated that nonce r be unique (but need not be unpredictable). Compare the security of the protocol for the two cases:
    1. r is unpredictable but not necessarily unique,
    2. r is unique but not necessarily unpredictable.
    by identifying Dolev-Yao attacks that compromise one version but not the other version of the protocol.

  3. UUdine Corporation is engaged in highly classified research for governments, so they restrict who is allowed to visit offices in their buildings. Each building is equipped as follows.

    UUdine has decided to build and locate a new facility on the Cornell campus. Since all members of the Cornell community have chip-enabled id cards, UUdine will "upgrade" that building's access system to use these existing id cards instead of fingerprints. UUdine has asked you to consult on the design of the protocols. They tell you to assume the following about the new setup.

    The computers embedded in the Cornell id cards are quite powerful, as is the computer in the card reader. These processors each have 64K of RAM, can execute C programs, and are capable of executing various cryptographic operations.

    The processor on an id_card, while that id card is inserted into the card reader, can send/receive messages to that card reader; the processor in the card reader can, in addition, (i) send/receive messages to Sys, (ii) open the turnstile, or (iii) sound an alarm. In addition, card id_P has ROM storage containing a public key K_P, a private key k_p, a pin PIN_P, and a unique identifier P.

    1. Give the remaining steps for the protocol started below that is executed by the id card, the card reader, and Sys after an id card has been inserted into the card reader. Use the notation we have been employing to describe authentication protocols, with principals id_P (for the card), reader (for the card reader), HUMAN (for the person whose card is inserted), and Sys (for the main computer system).

      The protocol has been started below

        0.  id_P inserted into reader
        1.  id_P --> reader:  P, K_P
        2.  reader --> Sys: send key for P?
        3.   ...

    2. Fingerprints are not easily transferred from one person to another, but id cards are easily transferred. That means somebody who works at the Cornell building can facilitate entry to the facility by somebody else (although only one of them could be in the building at a time). How could UUdine defend against this vulnerability without purchasing additional equipment. Changes to programming are allowed.