# Exercises

##### Exercise: twice, no arguments [✭]

Consider the following definitions:

let double x = 2*x
let square x = x*x
let twice f x = f (f x)
let fourth = twice square


Use the toplevel to determine what the types of quad and fourth are. Explain how it can be that quad is not syntactically written as a function that takes an argument, and yet its type shows that it is in fact a function.

##### Exercise: mystery operator 1 [✭✭]

What does the following operator do?

let ($) f x = f x  Hint: investigate square$ 2 + 2 vs. square 2 + 2.

##### Exercise: mystery operator 2 [✭✭]

What does the following operator do?

let (@@) f g x = x |> g |> f


Hint: investigate String.length @@ string_of_int applied to 1, 10, 100, etc.

##### Exercise: repeat [✭✭]

Generalize twice to a function repeat, such that repeat f n x applies f to x a total of n times. That is,

• repeat f 0 x yields x
• repeat f 1 x yields f x
• repeat f 2 x yields f (f x) (which is the same as twice f x)
• repeat f 3 x yields f (f (f x))
• ...
##### Exercise: product [✭]

Use fold_left to write a function product_left that computes the product of a list of floats. The product of the empty list is 1.0. Hint: recall how we implemented sum in just one line of code in lecture.

Use fold_right to write a function product_right that computes the product of a list of floats. Same hint applies.

##### Exercise: clip [✭✭]

Given the following function clip, write a function cliplist that clips every integer in its input list.

let clip n =
if n < 0 then 0
else if n > 10 then 10
else n


Write two version of cliplist: one that uses map, and another that is a direct recursive implementation.

##### Exercise: sum_cube_odd [✭✭]

Write a function sum_cube_odd n that computes the sum of the cubes of all the odd numbers between 0 and n inclusive. Do not write any new recursive functions. Instead, use the functionals map, fold, and filter, and the (--) operator (defined in the discussion of fold left vs. fold right).

##### Exercise: sum_cube_odd pipeline [✭✭]

Rewrite the function sum_cube_odd to use the pipeline operator |> as shown in the lecture notes for this lab in the section titled "Pipelining".

##### Exercise: exists [✭✭]

Consider writing a function exists: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool, such that exists p [a1; ...; an] returns whether at least one element of the list satisfies the predicate p. That is, it evaluates the same as (p a1) || (p a2) || ... || (p an). When applied to an empty list, it evaluates to false.

Write three solutions to this problem, as we did above:

• exists_rec, which must be a recursive function that does not use the List module,
• exists_fold, which uses either List.fold_left or List.fold_right, but not any other List module functions nor the rec keyword, and
• exists_lib, which uses any combination of List module functions other than fold_left or fold_right, and does not use the rec keyword.
##### Exercise: budget [✭✭✭]

Write a function which, given a list of numbers representing expenses, removes them from a budget, and finally returns the remaining amount in the budget. Write three versions: fold_left, fold_right, and a direct recursive implementation.

##### Exercise: library uncurried [✭✭]

Here is an uncurried version of List.nth:

let uncurried_nth (lst,n) = List.nth lst n


In a similar way, write uncurried versions of these library functions:

• List.append
• Char.compare
• Stdlib.max

When many functions share a common pattern, you can often write a single higher-order function to capture the common structure.

##### Exercise: uncurry [✭✭]

Write a function uncurry that takes in a curried function and returns the uncurried version of that function. Remember that curried functions have types like 'a -> 'b -> 'c, and the corresponding uncurried function will have the type 'a * 'b -> 'c. Therefore uncurry should have the folowing type:

val uncurry : ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a * 'b -> 'c


If your solution is correct, you can use it to reimplement the previous exercise as follows:

let uncurried_nth     = uncurry List.nth
let uncurried_append  = uncurry List.append
let uncurried_compare = uncurry Char.compare
let uncurried_max     = uncurry max

##### Exercise: curry [✭✭]

Write the inverse function curry. It should have the following type:

val curry : ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c

##### Exercise: terse product [✭✭, advanced]

How terse can you make your solutions to the product exercise? Hints: you need only one line of code for each, and you do not need the fun keyword. For fold_left, your function definition does not even need to explicitly take a list argument. If you use ListLabels, the same is true for fold_right.

##### Exercise: map composition [✭✭✭]

Show how to replace any expression of the form List.map f (List.map g lst) with an equivalent expression that calls List.map only once.

##### Exercise: more list fun [✭✭✭]

Write functions that perform the following computations. Each function that you write should use one of List.fold, List.map or List.filter.
To choose which of those to use, think about what the computation is doing: combining, transforming, or filtering elements.

• Find those elements of a list of strings whose length is strictly greater than 3.
• Add 1.0 to every element of a list of floats.
• Given a list of strings strs and another string sep, produce the string that contains every element of strs separated by sep. For example, given inputs ["hi";"bye"] and ",", produce "hi,bye", being sure not to produce an extra comma either at the beginning or end of the result string.
##### Exercise: tree map [✭✭✭]

Using the following defintion of tree:

type 'a tree =
| Leaf
| Node of 'a * 'a tree * 'a tree


Write a function tree_map : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a tree -> 'b tree that applies a function to every node of a tree, just like List.map applies a function to every element of a list.

Use your tree_map function to implement a function add1 : int tree -> int tree that increments every node in an int tree.

##### Exercise: association list keys [✭✭✭]

Recall that an association list is an implementation of a dictionary in terms of a list of pairs, in which we treat the first component of each pair as a key and the second component as a value.

Write a function keys: ('a * 'b) list -> 'a list that returns a list of the unique keys in an association list. Since they must be unique, no value should appear more than once in the output list. The order of values output does not matter. How compact and efficient can you make your solution? We know of one solution that (i) would fit in a single line of code, (ii) uses only library functions—not any user-defined functions, not even anonymous functions, (iii) requires sub-linear stack space, and (iv) requires sub-quadratic time. Hint: merge sort.

##### Exercise: valid matrix [✭✭✭]

A mathematical matrix can be represented with lists. In row-major representation, this matrix

$\left[ \begin{array}{c} 1 & 1 & 1 \\\\ 9 & 8 & 7 \end{array} \right]$

would be represented as the list [ [1; 1; 1]; [9; 8; 7] ]. Let's represent a row vector as an int list. For example, [9; 8; 7] is a row vector.

A valid matrix is an int list list that has at least one row, at least one column, and in which every column has the same number of rows. There are many values of type int list list that are invalid, for example,

• []
• [ [1;2];  ]

Implement a function is_valid_matrix: int list list -> bool that returns whether the input matrix is valid. Unit test the function.

##### Exercise: row vector add [✭✭✭]

Implement a function add_row_vectors: int list -> int list -> int list for the element-wise addition of two row vectors. For example, the addition of [1; 1; 1] and [9; 8; 7] is [10; 9; 8]. If the two vectors do not have the same number of entries, the behavior of your function is unspecified—that is, it may do whatever you like. Hint: there is an elegant one-line solution using List.map2. Unit test the function.

Implement a function add_matrices: int list list -> int list list -> int list list for matrix addition. If the two input matrices are not the same size, the behavior is unspecified. Hint: there is an elegant one-line solution using List.map2 and add_row_vectors. Unit test the function.
Implement a function multiply_matrices: int list list -> int list list -> int list list for matrix multiplication. If the two input matrices are not of sizes that can be multiplied together, the behavior is unspecified. Unit test the function. Hint: define functions for matrix transposition and row vector dot product.