# Higher-order Programming * * * <i> Topics: * higher-order functions * the Abstraction Principle * map * filter * fold right * fold left * folding over types other than lists * pipelining </i> * * * ## Higher-order functions Functions are values just like any other value in OCaml. What does that mean exactly? This means that we can pass functions around as arguments to other functions, that we can store functions in data structures, that we can return functions as a result from other functions. Let us look at why it is useful to have higher-order functions. The first reason is that it allows you to write general, reusable code. Consider these functions `double` and `square` on integers: ``` let double x = 2 * x let square x = x * x ``` Let's use these functions to write other functions that quadruple and raise a number to the fourth power: ``` let quad x = double (double x) let fourth x = square (square x) ``` There is an obvious similarity between these two functions: what they do is apply a given function twice to a value. By passing in the function to another function `twice` as an argument, we can abstract this functionality: ``` let twice f x = f (f x) (* twice : ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a *) ``` Using `twice`, we can implement `quad` and `fourth` in a uniform way: ``` let quad x = twice double x let fourth x = twice square x ``` *Higher-order functions* either take other functions as input or return other functions as output (or both). The function `twice` is higher-order: its input `f` is a function. And&mdash;recalling that all OCaml functions really take only a single argument&mdash;its output is technically `fun x -> f (f x)`, so `twice` returns a function hence is also higher-order in that way. Higher-order functions are also known as *functionals*, and programming with them could be called *functional programming*&mdash;indicating what the heart of programming in languages like OCaml is all about. * * * <i> **Higher Order** The phrase "higher order" is used throughout logic and computer science, though not necessarily with a precise or consistent meaning in all cases. In logic, *first-order quantification* refers to the kind of universal and existential (\\(\forall\\) and \\(\exists\\)) quantifiers that you see in CS 2800. These let you quantify over some *domain* of interest, such as the natural numbers. But for any given quantification, say \\(\forall x\\), the variable being quantified represents an individual element of that domain, say the natural number 42. *Second-order quantification* lets you do something strictly more powerful, which is to quantify over *properties* of the domain. Properties are assertions about individual elements, for example, that a natural number is even, or that it is prime. In some logics we can equate properties with sets of individual, for example the set of all even naturals. So second-order quantification is often thought of as quantification over *sets*. You can also think of properties as being functions that take in an element and return a Boolean indicating whether the element satisfies the property; this is called the *characteristic function* of the property. *Third-order* logic would allow quantification over properties of properties, and *fourth-order* over properties of properties of properties, and so forth. *Higher-order logic* refers to all these logics that are more powerful than first-order logic; though one interesting result in this area is that all higher-order logics can be expressed in second-order logic. In programming languages, *first-order functions* similarly refer to functions that operate on individual data elements (e.g., strings, ints, records, variants, etc.). Whereas *higher-order function* can operate on functions, much like higher-order logics can quantify over over properties (which are like functions). </i> * * * ## The Abstraction Principle Above, we have exploited the structural similarity between `quad` and `fourth` to save work. Admittedly, in this toy example it might not seem like much work. But imagine that `twice` were actually some much more complicated function. Then if someone comes up with a more efficient version of it, every function written in terms of it (like `quad` and `fourth`) could benefit from that improvement in efficiency, without needing to be recoded. Part of being an excellent programmer is recognizing such similarities and *abstracting* them by creating functions (or other units of code) that implement them. This is known as the **Abstraction Principle**, which says to avoid requiring something to be stated more than once; instead, *factor out* the recurring pattern. Higher-order functions enable such refactoring, because they allow us to factor out functions and parameterize functions on other functions. ## Other basic higher-order functions Besides `twice`, here are some more relatively simple examples. **Apply.** We can write a function that applies its first input to its second input: ``` let apply f x = f x ``` Of course, writing `apply f` is a lot more work than just writing `f`. **Pipeline.** The pipeline operator, which we've previously seen, is a higher-order function: ``` let pipeline x f = f x let (|>) = pipeline let x = 5 |> double (* 10 *) ``` **Compose.** We can write a function that composes two other functions: ``` let compose f g x = f (g x) ``` This function would let us create a new function that can be applied many times, such as the following: ``` let square_then_double = compose double square let x = square_then_double 1 (* 2 *) let y = square_then_double 2 (* 8 *) ``` **Both.** We can write a function that applies two functions to the same argument and returns a pair of the result: ``` let both f g x = (f x, g x) let ds = both double square let p = ds 3 (* (6,9) *) ``` **Cond.** We can write a function that conditionally chooses which of two functions to apply based on a predicate: ``` let cond p f g x = if p x then f x else g x ``` Having seen some simpler examples, let's move on to some more complicated but really useful examples of higher-order functions. ## Map Here are two functions we might want to write: ``` (* add 1 to each element of list *) let rec add1 = function | [] -> [] | h::t -> (h+1)::(add1 t) (* concatenate "3110" to each element of list *) let rec concat3110 = function | [] -> [] | h::t -> (h^"3110")::(concat3110 t) ``` When given input `[a; b; c]` they produce these results: ``` add1: [a+1; b+1; c+1] concat3110: [a^"3110"; b^"3110"; c^"3110"] ``` Let's introduce these definitions: ``` let f = fun x -> x+1 let g = fun x -> x^"3110" ``` Then we can rewrite the previous results as: ``` add1: [f a; f b; f c] concat3110: [g a; g b; g c] ``` Once again we notice some common structure that could be factored out. The only real difference between these two functions is that they apply a different function when transforming the head element. So let's *abstract* that function from the definitions of `add1` and `concat3110`, and make it an argument. Call the unified version of the two `map`, because it *maps* each element of the list through a function: ``` (* [map f [x1; x2; ...; xn]] is [f x1; f x2; ...; f xn] *) let rec map f = function | [] -> [] | h::t -> (f h)::(map f t) ``` Now we can implement our original two functions quite simply: ``` let add1 lst = map (fun x -> x+1) lst let concat3110 lst = map (fun x -> x^"3110") lst ``` And we can even remove the `lst` everywhere it appears, relying on the fact that `map f` will return a function that expects an input list: ``` let add1 = map (fun x -> x+1) let concat3110 = map (fun x -> x^"3110") ``` It's worthwhile putting both those version of the functions, with and without `lst`, into the toplevel so that you can observe that the types do not change. We have now successfully applied the Abstraction Principle: the common structure has been factored out. What's left clearly expresses the computation, at least to the reader who is familiar with `map`, in a way that the original versions do not as quickly make apparent. The idea of map exists in many programming languages. It's called `List.map` in the OCaml standard library. Python 3.5 also has it: ``` >>> print(list(map(lambda x: x+1, [1,2,3]))) [2, 3, 4] ``` Java 8 recently added [map][java8map] too. [java8map]: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/stream/Stream.html#map-java.util.function.Function- ## Filter Here are two functions we might want to write: ``` let rec evens = function | [] -> [] | h::t -> if even h then h::(evens t) else evens t let rec odds = function | [] -> [] | h::t -> if odd h then h::(odds t) else odds t ``` Those two functions rely on a couple simple helper functions: ``` let even n = n mod 2 = 0 let odd n = n mod 2 <> 0 ``` When applied, `evens` and `odds` return the even or odd integers in a list: ``` # evens [1;2;3;4] - : int list = [2;4] # odds [1;2;3;4] - : int list = [1;3] ``` Those functions once again share some common structure: the only essential difference is the test they apply to the head element. So let's factor out that test as a function, and parameterize a unified version of the functions on it: ``` (* [filter p l] is the list of elements of [l] that satisfy the predicate [p]. * The order of the elements in the input list is preserved. *) let rec filter f = function | [] -> [] | h::t -> if f h then h::(filter f t) else filter f t ``` And now we can reimplement our original two functions: ``` let evens = filter even let odds = filter odd ``` How simple these are! How clear! (At least to the reader who is familiar with `filter`.) Again, the idea of filter exists in many programming languages. It's `List.filter` in OCaml. It's in Python 3.5: ``` >>> print(list(filter(lambda x: x%2 == 0, [1,2,3,4]))) [2, 4] ``` Java 8 recently added [filter][java8filter] too. [java8filter]: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/stream/Stream.html#filter-java.util.function.Predicate- ## Fold right The map functional gives us a way to individually transform each element of a list. The filter functional gives us a way to individually decide whether to keep or throw away each element of a list. But both of those are really just looking at a single element at a time. What if we wanted to somehow combine all the elements of a list? Once more, let's write two functions: ``` let rec sum = function | [] -> 0 | h::t -> h + sum t let concat = function | [] -> "" | h::t -> h ^ concat t ``` As before, the functions share a great deal of common structure. The differences are: * the case for the empty list returns a different initial value, `0` vs `""` * the case of a non-empty list uses a different operator to combine the head element with the result of the recursive call, `+` vs `^`. So can we apply the Abstraction Principle again? Sure! This time we need to factor out two arguments: one for each of those two differences. Here's how we could rewrite the functions to factor out just the initial value (we won't factor out an operator just yet): ``` let rec sum' init = function | [] -> init | h::t -> h + sum' init t let sum = sum' 0 let rec concat' init = function | [] -> init | h::t -> h + concat' init t let concat = concat' "" ``` Now the only real difference left between `sum'` and `concat'` is the operator. That can also become an argument to a unified function we call `combine`: ``` let rec combine op init = function | [] -> init | h::t -> op h (combine op init t) let sum = combine (+) 0 let concat = combine (^) "" ``` Once more, the Abstraction Principle has led us to an amazingly simple and succinct expression of the computation. One way of thinking of the first two arguments `op` and `init` to `combine` is that they say what to do for the two possible constructors of the implicit third argument: if the third argument is constructed with `[]`, then return `init`. If it's constructed with `::`, then return `op` applied to the values found inside the data that `::` carries. Of course, one of the data items that `::` carries is itself another list, so we have to recursively call `combine` on that list to get a value out that's suitable to pass to `op`. The `combine` function is the basis for an OCaml library function named `List.fold_right`. Here is its implementation: ``` let rec fold_right op lst init = match lst with | [] -> init | h::t -> op h (fold_right op t init) let sum lst = fold_right (+) lst 0 let concat lst = fold_right (^) lst "" ``` This is nearly the same function as `combine`, except that it takes its list argument as the penultimate rather than ultimate argument. The intuition for why this function is called `fold_right` is that the way it works is to "fold in" elements of the list from the right to the left, combining each new element using the operator. For example, `fold_right (+) [a;b;c] 0` results in evaluation of the expression `a+(b+(c+0))`. The parentheses associate from the right-most subexpression to the left. One way to think of `fold_right` would be that the `[]` value in the list gets replaced by `init`, and each `::` constructor gets replaced by `op`. For example, `[a;b;c]` is just syntactic sugar for `a::(b::(c::[]))`. So if we replace `[]` with `0` and `::` with `(+)`, we get `a+(b+(c+0))`. ## Fold left Given that there's a fold function that works from right to left, it stands to reason that there's one that works from left to right. That function is called `List.fold_left` in the OCaml library. Here is its implementation: ``` let rec fold_left op acc = function | [] -> acc | h::t -> fold_left op (op acc h) t ``` The idea is that `fold_left (+) 0 [a;b;c]` results in evaluation of `((0+a)+b)+c`. The parentheses associate from the left-most subexpression to the right. So `fold_left` is "folding in" elements of the list from the left to the right, combining each new element using the operator. This function therefore works a little differently than `fold_right`. As a simple difference, notice that the list argument is the ultimate argument rather than penultimate. More importantly, the name of the initial value argument has changed from `init` to `acc`, because it's no longer going to just be the initial value. The reason we call it `acc` is that we think of it as an *accumulator*, which is the result of combining list elements so far. In `fold_right`, you will notice that the value passed as the `init` argument is the same for every recursive invocation of `fold_right`: it's passed all the way down to where it's needed, at the right-most element of the list, then used there exactly once. But in `fold_left`, you will notice that at each recursive invocation, the value passed as the argument `acc` can be different. For example, if we want to walk across a list of integers and sum them, we could store the current sum in the accumulator. We start with the accumulator set to 0. As we come across each new element, we add the element to the accumulator. When we reach the end, we return the value stored in the accumulator. ``` let rec sum' acc = function | [] -> acc | h::t -> sum' (acc+x) xs let sum = sum' 0 ``` Our `fold_left` function abstracts from the particular operator used in the `sum'`. Using `fold_left`, we can rewrite `sum` and `concat` as follows: ``` let sum = List.fold_left (+) 0 let concat = List.fold_left (^) "" ``` We have once more succeeded in applying the Abstraction Principle. Here is the actual [code from the standard library][list-stdlib-src] that implements the two fold functions: ``` let rec fold_left f accu l = match l with [] -> accu | a::l -> fold_left f (f accu a) l let rec fold_right f l accu = match l with [] -> accu | a::l -> f a (fold_right f l accu) ``` The library calls the operator (or combining function) `f` instead of `op`, and the initial value for `fold_right` it calls `accu` by analogy to `fold_left`'s accumulator, even though it's not truly an accumulator for `fold_right`. [list-stdlib-src]: https://github.com/ocaml/ocaml/blob/trunk/stdlib/list.ml#L85 ## Fold left vs. fold right Having built both `fold_right` and `fold_left`, it's worthwhile to compare and contrast them. The immediately obvious difference is the order in which they combine elements from the list: right to left vs. left to right. When the operator being used to combine elements is *associative*, that order doesn't doesn't change the final value of the computation. But for non-associative operators like `(-)`, it can: ``` # List.fold_right (-) [1;2;3] 0;; (* 1 - (2 - (3 - 0)) *) - : int = 2 # List.fold_left (-) 0 [1;2;3];; (* ((0 - 1) - 2) - 3 *) - : int = -6 ``` A second difference is that `fold_left` is tail recursive whereas `fold_right` is not. So if you need to use `fold_right` on a very lengthy list, you may instead want to reverse the list first then use `fold_left`; the operator will need to take its arguments in the reverse order, too: ``` # List.fold_right (fun x y -> x - y) [1;2;3] 0;; - : int = 2 # List.fold_left (fun y x -> x - y) 0 (List.rev [1;2;3]);; - : int = 2 # List.fold_left (fun x y -> y - x) 0 (List.rev (0--1_000_000));; - : int = 500000 # List.fold_right (fun y x -> x - y) (0--1_000_000) 0;; Stack overflow during evaluation (looping recursion?) ``` Of course we could have written `fun x y -> x - y` as `(-)` in the code above, but we didn't in this one case just so you could see how the argument order has to change. Recall that `(--)` is an operator we defined in the recitation on lists; `x--y` tail-recursively computes the list containing all the integers from `x` to `y` inclusive: ``` let (--) i j = let rec from i j l = if i>j then l else from i (j-1) (j::l) in from i j [] ``` We could even define a tail-recursive version of `fold_right` by baking in the list reversal: ``` let fold_right_tr f l accu = List.fold_left (fun acc elt -> f elt acc) accu (List.rev l) # fold_right_tr (fun x y -> x - y) (0--1_000_000) 0;; - : int = 500000 ``` A third difference is the types of the functions. It can be hard to remember what those types are! Luckily we can always ask the toplevel: ``` # List.fold_left;; - : ('a -> 'b -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'b list -> 'a = <fun> # List.fold_right;; - : ('a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b = <fun> ``` To understand those types, look for the list argument in each one of them. That tells you the type of the values in the list. Then look for the type of the return value; that tells you the type of the accumulator. From there you can work out everything else. * In `fold_left`, the list argument is of type `'b list`, so the list contains values of type `'b`. The return type is `'a`, so the accumulator has type `'a`. Knowing that, we can figure out that the second argument is the initial value of the accumulator (because it has type `'a`). And we can figure out that the first argument, the combining operator, takes as its own first argument an accumulator value (because it has type `'a`), as its own second argument a list element (because it has type `'b`), and returns a new accumulator value. * In `fold_right`, the list argument is of type `'a list`, so the list contains values of type `'a`. The return type is `'b`, so the accumulator has type `'b`. Knowing that, we can figure out that the third argument is the initial value of the accumulator (because it has type `'b`). And we can figure out that the first argument, the combining operator, takes as its own second argument an accumulator value (because it has type `'b`), as its own first argument a list element (because it has type `'a`), and returns a new accumulator value. You might wonder why the argument orders are different between the two `fold` functions. I have no good answer to that question. Other libraries do in fact use different argument orders. If you find it hard to keep track of all these argument orders, the [`ListLabels` module][listlabels] in the standard library can help. It uses labeled arguments to give names to the combining operator (which it calls `f`) and the initial accumulator value (which it calls `init`). Internally, the implementation is actually identical to the `List` module. ``` # ListLabels.fold_left;; - : f:('a -> 'b -> 'a) -> init:'a -> 'b list -> 'a = <fun> # ListLabels.fold_right;; - : f:('a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> init:'b -> 'b = <fun> # ListLabels.fold_left ~f:(fun x y -> x - y) ~init:0 [1;2;3];; - : int = -6 # ListLabels.fold_right ~f:(fun y x -> x - y) ~init:0 [1;2;3];; - : int = -6 ``` Notice how in the two applications of fold above, we are able to write the arguments in a uniform order thanks to their labels. However, we still have to be careful about which argument to the combining operator is the list element vs. the accumulator value. [listlabels]: http://caml.inria.fr/pub/docs/manual-ocaml/libref/ListLabels.html * * * <i> **A digression on labeled arguments and fold** It's possible to write our own version of the fold functions that would label the arguments to the combining operator, so we don't even have to remember their order: ``` let rec fold_left ~op:(f: acc:'a -> elt:'b -> 'a) ~init:accu l = match l with [] -> accu | a::l -> fold_left ~op:f ~init:(f ~acc:accu ~elt:a) l let rec fold_right ~op:(f: elt:'a -> acc:'b -> 'b) l ~init:accu = match l with [] -> accu | a::l -> f ~elt:a ~acc:(fold_right ~op:f l ~init:accu) ``` But those functions aren't as useful as they might seem: ``` # fold_left ~op:(+) ~init:0 [1;2;3];; Error: This expression has type int -> int -> int but an expression was expected of type acc:'a -> elt:'b -> 'a ``` The problem is that the built-in `(+)` operator doesn't have labeled arguments, so we can't pass it in as the combining operator to our labeled functions. We'd have to define our own labeled version of it: ``` # let add ~acc ~elt = acc+elt;; val add : acc:int -> elt:int -> int = <fun> # fold_left ~op:add ~init:0 [1;2;3];; - : int = 6 ``` But now we have to remember that the `~acc` parameter to `add` will become the left-hand argument to `(+)`. That's not really much of an improvement over what we had to remember to begin with. </i> * * * ## Folding is powerful Folding is so powerful that we can write many other list functions in terms of `fold_left` or `fold_right`! For example, ``` let length l = List.fold_left (fun a _ -> a+1) 0 l let rev l = List.fold_left (fun a x -> x::a) [] l let map f l = List.fold_right (fun x a -> (f x)::a) l [] let filter f l = List.fold_right (fun x a -> if f x then x::a else a) l [] ``` At this point it begins to become debatable whether it's better to express the computations above using folding or using the ways we have already seen. Even for an experienced functional programmer, understanding what a fold does can take longer than reading the naive recursive implementation. If you peruse the standard library, you'll see that none of the `List` module internally is implemented in terms of folding, which is perhaps one comment on the readability of fold. On the other hand, using fold ensures that the programmer doesn't accidentally program the recursive traversal incorrectly. And for a data structure that's more complicated than lists, that robustness might be a win. Speaking of recursing other data structures, here's how we could program a fold over a binary tree. Here's our tree data structure: ``` type 'a tree = | Leaf | Node of 'a * 'a tree * 'a tree ``` Let's develop a fold functional for `'a tree` similar to our `fold_right` over `'a list`. Recall what we said above: <i>"One way to think of `fold_right` would be that the `[]` value in the list gets replaced by `init`, and each `::` constructor gets replaced by `op`. For example, `[a;b;c]` is just syntactic sugar for `a::(b::(c::[]))`. So if we replace `[]` with `0` and `::` with `(+)`, we get `a+(b+(c+0))`."</i> Here's a way we could rewrite `fold_right` that will help us think a little more clearly: ``` type 'a list = | Nil | Cons of 'a * 'a list let rec foldlist init op = function | Nil -> init | Cons (h,t) -> op h (foldlist init op t) ``` All we've done is to change the definition of lists to use constructors written with alphabetic characters instead of punctuation, and to change the argument order of the fold function. For trees, we'll want the initial value to replace each `Leaf` constructor, just like it replaced `[]` in lists. And we'll want each `Node` constructor to be replaced by the operator. But now the operator will need to be *ternary* instead of *binary*&mdash;that is, it will need to take three arguments instead of two&mdash;because a tree node has a value, a left child, and a right child, whereas a list cons had only a head and a tail. Inspired by those observations, here is the fold function on trees: ``` let rec foldtree init op = function | Leaf -> init | Node (v,l,r) -> op v (foldtree init op l) (foldtree init op r) ``` If you compare that function to `foldlist`, you'll note it very nearly identical. There's just one more recursive call in the second pattern-matching branch, corresponding to the one more occurrence of `'a tree` in the definition of that type. We can then use `foldtree` to implement some of the tree functions we've previously seen: ``` let size t = foldtree 0 (fun _ l r -> 1 + l + r) t let depth t = foldtree 0 (fun _ l r -> 1 + max l r) t let preorder t = foldtree [] (fun x l r -> [x] @ l @ r) t ``` The technique we just used to derive `foldtree` works for any OCaml variant type `t`: * Write a recursive `fold` function that takes in one argument for each constructor of `t`. * That `fold` function matches against the constructors, calling itself recursively on any value of type `t` that it encounters. * Use the appropriate argument of `fold` to combine the results of all recursive calls as well as all data not of type `t` at each constructor. This technique constructs something called a *catamorphism*, aka a *generalized fold operation*. To learn more about catamorphisms, take a course on category theory, such as CS 6117. ## Pipelining Suppose we wanted to compute the sum of squares of the numbers from 0 up to `n`. How might we go about it? Of course (math being the best form of optimization), the most efficient way would be a closed-form formula: \\[\frac{n (n+1) (2n+1)}{6}\\] But let's imagine you've forgotten that formula. In an imperative language you might use a for loop: ``` # Python def sum_sq(n): sum = 0 for i in range(0,n): sum += i*i return sum ``` The equivalent recursive code in OCaml would be: ``` let sum_sq n = let rec loop i sum = if i>n then sum else loop (i+1) (sum + i*i) in loop 0 0 ``` Another, clearer way of producing the same result in OCaml would be to use *pipelining* of a list through several functions: ``` let square x = x*x let sum = List.fold_left (+) 0 let sum_sq n = 0--n (* [0;1;2;...;n] *) |> List.map square (* [0;1;4;...;n*n] *) |> sum (* 0+1+4+...+n*n *) ``` The function `sum_sq` first constructs a list containing all the numbers `0..n`. Then it uses the pipeline operator `|>` to pass that list through `List.map square`, which squares every element. Then the resulting list is pipelined through `sum`, which adds all the elements together. Pipelining with lists and other data structures is quite idiomatic. The other alternatives that you might consider are somewhat uglier: ``` (* worse: a lot of extra let..in syntax *) let sum_sq n = let l = 0--n in let sq_l = List.map square l in sum sq_l (* maybe worse: have to read the function applications from right to left * rather than top to bottom *) let sum_sq n = sum (List.map square (0--n)) ``` We could improve our code a little further by using `List.rev_map` instead of `List.map`. `List.rev_map` is a tail-recursive version of `map` that reverses the order of the list. Since `(+)` is associative and commutative, we don't mind the list being reversed. ``` let sum_sq n = 0--n (* [0;1;2;...;n] *) |> List.rev_map square (* [n*n;...;4;1;0] *) |> sum (* n*n+...+4+1+0 *) ``` ## Summary This lecture is one of the most important in the course. It didn't cover any new language features. Instead, we learned how to use some of the existing features in ways that might be new, surprising, or challenging. Higher-order programming and the Abstraction Principle are two ideas that will help make you a better programmer in any language, not just OCaml. Of course, languages do vary in the extent to which they support these ideas, with some providing significantly less assistance in writing higher-order code&mdash;which is one reason we use OCaml in this course. Map, filter, fold and other functionals are becoming widely recognized as excellent ways to structure computation. Part of the reason for that is they factor out the *iteration* over a data structure from the *computation* done at each element. Languages such as Python, Ruby, and Java 8 now have support for this kind of iteration. ## Terms and concepts * Abstraction Principle * accumulator * apply * associative * compose * factor * filter * first-order function * fold * functional * generalized fold operation * higher-order function * map * pipeline * pipelining ## Further reading * *Introduction to Objective Caml*, chapters 3.1.3, 5.3 * *OCaml from the Very Beginning*, chapter 6 * *More OCaml: Algorithms, Methods, and Diversions*, chapter 1, by John Whitington. This book is a sequel to *OCaml from the Very Beginning*. * *Real World OCaml*, chapter 3 (beware that this book's `Core` library has a different `List` module than the standard library's `List` module, with different types for `map` and `fold` than those we saw here) * "Higher Order Functions", chapter 6 of *Functional Programming: Practice and Theory*. Bruce J. MacLennan, Addison-Wesley, 1990. The discussion of higher-order functions above is indebted to this chapter, which might be difficult to find. * "[Second-order and Higher-order Logic][solhol]" in *The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy*. [solhol]: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-higher-order/#4