# Higher-order Programming In today's lab, we'll practice using higher-order functions. ## Higher-order functions ##### Exercise: twice, no arguments [&#10029;] Consider the following definitions:  let double x = 2*x let square x = x*x let twice f x = f (f x) let quad = twice double let fourth = twice square  Use the toplevel to determine what the types of quad and fourth are. Explain how it can be that quad is not syntactically written as a function that takes an argument, and yet its type shows that it is in fact a function. &square; ##### Exercise: mystery operator 1 [&#10029;&#10029;] What does the following operator do?  let ($) f x = f x  *Hint: investigate square$ 2 + 2 vs. square 2 + 2.* &square; ##### Exercise: mystery operator 2 [&#10029;&#10029;] What does the following operator do?  let (@@) f g x = x |> g |> f  *Hint: investigate String.length @@ string_of_int applied to 1, 10, 100, etc.* &square; ##### Exercise: repeat [&#10029;&#10029;] Generalize twice to a function repeat, such that repeat f n x applies f to x a total of n times. That is, * repeat f 0 x yields x * repeat f 1 x yields f x * repeat f 2 x yields f (f x) (which is the same as twice f x) * repeat f 3 x yields f (f (f x)) * ... &square; ## Map, fold, and filter Review the [OCaml List library][listdoc] documentation of map, fold_left, fold_right, and filter. Recall that * map applies a function to each element of a list individually * the fold_X functions combine all the elements of a list with a function * filter removes elements of a list that do not satisfy a function [listdoc]: http://caml.inria.fr/pub/docs/manual-ocaml/libref/List.html ##### Exercise: product [&#10029;] Use fold_left to write a function product_left that computes the product of a list of floats. The product of the empty list is 1.0. *Hint: recall how we implemented sum in just one line of code in lecture.* Use fold_right to write a function product_right that computes the product of a list of floats. *Same hint applies.* &square; ##### Exercise: sum_cube_odd [&#10029;&#10029;] Write a function sum_cube_odd n that computes the sum of the cubes of all the odd numbers between 0 and n inclusive. Do not write any new recursive functions. Instead, use the functionals map, fold, and filter, and the (--) operator defined in the lecture notes. &square; ##### Exercise: sum_cube_odd pipeline [&#10029;&#10029;] Rewrite the function sum_cube_odd to use the pipeline operator |> as shown in the lecture notes for this lab in the section titled "Pipelining". &square; ## Three ways We've now seen three different ways for writing functions that manipulate lists: directly as a recursive function that pattern matches against the empty list and against cons, using fold functions, and using other library functions. Let's try using each of those ways to solve a problem, so that we can appreciate them better. Consider writing a function lst_and: bool list -> bool, such that lst_and [a1; ...; an] returns whether all elements of the list are true. That is, it evaluates the same as a1 && a2 && ... && an. When applied to an empty list, it evaluates to true. Here are three possible ways of writing such a function. We give each way a slightly different function name for clarity.  let rec lst_and_rec = function | [] -> true | h::t -> h && lst_and_rec t let lst_and_fold = List.fold_left (fun acc elt -> acc && elt) true let lst_and_lib = List.for_all (fun x -> x)  ##### Exercise: exists [&#10029;&#10029;] Consider writing a function exists: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool, such that exists p [a1; ...; an] returns whether at least one element of the list satisfies the predicate p. That is, it evaluates the same as (p a1) || (p a2) || ... || (p an). When applied to an empty list, it evaluates to false. Write three solutions to this problem, as we did above: * exists_rec, which must be a recursive function that does not use the List module, * exists_fold, which uses either List.fold_left or List.fold_right, but not any other List module functions nor the rec keyword, and * exists_lib, which uses any combination of List module functions other than fold_left or fold_right, and does not use the rec keyword. Also write a test suite similar to the one above. Make sure your implementations pass your test suite. &square; ## Currying We've already seen that an OCaml function that takes two arguments of types t1 and t2 and returns a value of type t3 has the type t1 -> t2 -> t3. We use two variables after the function name in the let expression:  # let add x y = x + y;; val add : int -> int -> int  Another way to define a function that takes two arguments is to write a function that takes a tuple:  # let add' t = (fst t) + (snd t) val add' : int * int -> int  Instead of using fst and snd, we could use a tuple pattern in the definition of the function, leading to a third implementation:  # let add'' (x,y) = x + y val add'' : int * int -> int  Functions written using the first style (with type t1 -> t2 -> t3) are called *curried* functions, and functions using the second style (with type t1 * t2 -> t3) are called *uncurried*. Metaphorically, curried functions are "spicier" because you can partially apply them (something you can't do with uncurried functions: you can't pass in half of a pair). Actually, the term curry does not refer to spices, but to a logician named [Haskell Curry][curry] (one of a very small set of people with programming languages named after both their first and last names). [curry]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haskell_Curry Sometimes you will come across libraries that offer an uncurried version of a function, but you want a curried version of it to use in your own code; or vice versa. So it is useful to know how to convert between the two kinds of functions. The next couple exercises explore how to do that. They are also good exercises for improving your understanding of the types of higher-order functions. ##### Exercise: library uncurried [&#10029;&#10029;] Here is an uncurried version of List.nth:  let uncurried_nth (lst,n) = List.nth lst n  In a similar way, write uncurried versions of these library functions: - List.append - Char.compare - Pervasives.max &square; When many functions share a common pattern, you can often write a single higher-order function to capture the common structure. ##### Exercise: uncurry [&#10029;&#10029;] Write a function uncurry that takes in a curried function and returns the uncurried version of that function. Remember that curried functions have types like 'a -> 'b -> 'c, and the corresponding uncurried function will have the type 'a * 'b -> 'c. Therefore uncurry should have the folowing type:  val uncurry : ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a * 'b -> 'c  If your solution is correct, you can use it to reimplement the previous exercise as follows:  let uncurried_nth = uncurry List.nth let uncurried_append = uncurry List.append let uncurried_compare = uncurry Char.compare let uncurried_max = uncurry max  &square; ##### Exercise: curry [&#10029;&#10029;] Write the inverse function curry. It should have the following type:  val curry : ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c  &square; ## Additional exercises ##### Exercise: terse product [&#10029;&#10029;, advanced] How terse can you make your solutions to the **product** exercise? *Hints: you need only one line of code for each, and you do not need the fun keyword. For fold_left, your function definition does not even need to explicitly take a list argument. If you use ListLabels, the same is true for fold_right.* &square; ##### Exercise: map composition [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;] Show how to replace any expression of the form List.map f (List.map g lst) with an equivalent expression that calls List.map only once. &square; ##### Exercise: more list fun [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;] Write functions that perform the following computations. Each function that you write should use one of List.fold, List.map or List.filter. To choose which of those to use, think about what the computation is doing: combining, transforming, or filtering elements. * Find those elements of a list of strings whose length is strictly greater than 3. * Add 1.0 to every element of a list of floats. * Given a list of strings strs and another string sep, produce the string that contains every element of strs separated by sep. For example, given inputs ["hi";"bye"] and ",", produce "hi,bye", being sure not to produce an extra comma either at the beginning or end of the result string. &square; ##### Exercise: tree map [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;] Using the following defintion of tree:  type 'a tree = | Leaf | Node of 'a * 'a tree * 'a tree  Write a function tree_map : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a tree -> 'b tree that applies a function to every node of a tree, just like List.map applies a function to every element of a list. Use your tree_map function to implement a function add1 : int tree -> int tree that increments every node in an int tree. &square; ##### Exercise: association list keys [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;] Recall that an association list is an implementation of a dictionary in terms of a list of pairs, in which we treat the first component of each pair as a key and the second component as a value. Write a function keys: ('a * 'b) list -> 'a list that returns a list of the unique keys in an association list. Since they must be unique, no value should appear more than once in the output list. The order of values output does not matter. How compact and efficient can you make your solution? We know of one solution that (i) would fit in a single line of code, (ii) uses only library functions&mdash;not any user-defined functions, not even anonymous functions, (iii) requires sub-linear stack space, and (iv) requires sub-quadratic time. *Hint: merge sort.* &square; ## Challenge exercises: Matrices A mathematical *matrix* can be represented with lists. In *row-major* representation, this matrix $$\left[ \begin{array}{c} 1 & 1 & 1 \\\\ 9 & 8 & 7 \end{array} \right]$$ would be represented as the list [ [1; 1; 1]; [9; 8; 7] ]. Let's represent a *row vector* as an int list. For example, [9; 8; 7] is a row vector. For the remaining exercises, start a new file matrix.ml in which you put your code and matrix_test.ml in which you write unit tests. ##### Exercise: valid matrix [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;] A *valid* matrix is an int list list that has at least one row, at least one column, and in which every column has the same number of rows. There are many values of type int list list that are invalid, for example, * [] * [ [1;2]; [3] ] Implement a function is_valid_matrix: int list list -> bool that returns whether the input matrix is valid. Unit test the function. &square; ##### Exercise: row vector add [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;] Implement a function add_row_vectors: int list -> int list -> int list for the element-wise addition of two row vectors. For example, the addition of [1; 1; 1] and [9; 8; 7] is [10; 9; 8]. If the two vectors do not have the same number of entries, the behavior of your function is *unspecified*&mdash;that is, it may do whatever you like. *Hint: there is an elegant one-line solution using List.map2.* Unit test the function. &square; ##### Exercise: matrix add [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;, advanced] Implement a function add_matrices: int list list -> int list list -> int list list for [matrix addition][matadd]. If the two input matrices are not the same size, the behavior is unspecified. *Hint: there is an elegant one-line solution using List.map2 and add_row_vectors.* Unit test the function. [matadd]: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/MatrixAddition.html &square; ##### Exercise: matrix multiply [&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;&#10029;, advanced] Implement a function multiply_matrices: int list list -> int list list -> int list list for [matrix multiplication][matmult]. If the two input matrices are not of sizes that can be multiplied together, the behavior is unspecified. Unit test the function. *Hint: define functions for matrix transposition and row vector dot product.* [matmult]: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/MatrixMultiplication.html &square;